A central function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing tissues is the secretion of fluid containing 100-140 mM HCO3-. High levels of HCO3- maintain secreted proteins such as mucins (all tissues) and digestive enzymes (pancreas) in a soluble and/or inactive state. HCO3- secretion is impaired in CF in all CFTR-expressing, HCO3--secreting tissues examined. The mechanism responsible for this critical problem in CF is unknown. Since a major component of HCO3- secretion in CFTR-expressing cells is mediated by the action of a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger (AE), in the present work we examined the regulation of AE activity by CFTR. In NIH 3T3 cells stably transfected with wild type CFTR and in HEK 293 cells expressing WT and several mutant CFTR, activation of CFTR by cAMP stimulated AE activity. Pharmacological and mutagenesis studies indicated that expression of CFTR in the plasma membrane, but not the Cl- conductive function of CFTR was required for activation of AE. Furthermore, mutations in NBD2 altered regulation of AE activity by CFTR independent of their effect on Cl- channel activity. At very high expression levels CFTR modified the sensitivity of AE to 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonate. The novel finding of regulation of Cl-/HCO3- exchange by CFTR reported here may have important physiological implications and explain, at least in part, the impaired HCO3- secretion in CF.
"In many epithelia including pancreatic ducts, salivary gland ducts, and duodenum, apical HCO 3 − secretion is frequently associated with Cl − absorption, which is mediated by Cl − /HCO 3 − exchangers  . Notably, the activity of Cl − /HCO 3 − exchangers at the apical membrane is highly dependent on the expression of CFTR in epithelial cells   . In humans and other mammals , gene products of SLC4 and SLC26 families are known to have Cl − /HCO 3 − exchange activities. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion plays a key role in the maintenance of fluid and protein secretion from epithelial cells and the protection of the epithelial cell surface from various pathogens. Epithelial bicarbonate secretion is mainly under the control of cAMP and calcium signaling. While the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of cAMP-induced bicarbonate secretion are relatively well defined, those induced by calcium signaling remain poorly understood in most epithelia. The present review summarizes the current status of knowledge on the role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion. Specifically, this review introduces how cytosolic calcium signaling can increase bicarbonate secretion by regulating membrane transport proteins and how it synergizes with cAMP-induced mechanisms in epithelial cells. In addition, tissue-specific variations in the pancreas, salivary glands, intestines, bile ducts, and airways are discussed. We hope that the present report will stimulate further research into this important topic. These studies will provide the basis for future medicines for a wide spectrum of epithelial disorders including cystic fibrosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and chronic pancreatitis.
"In contrast, it is well established that secretion of HCO À 3 across the apical membrane of pancreatic duct cells involves both CFTR and SLC26 family Cl À / HCO À 3 exchangers, although the quantitative importance of each pathway is controversial (Steward et al., 2005; Argent et al., 2006). Furthermore, it has been shown that phosphorylation of CFTR, as occurs during stimulation of HCO À 3 secretion, activates SLC26 anion exchangers (Lee et al., 1999b; Shcheynikov et al., 2006). Our PCR data indicate that PAT 1 (SLC26A6) is the important SLC26 exchanger in CFPAC-1 cells (see Fig. 2A). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal inherited disease caused by the absence or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. About 70% of CF patients are exocrine pancreatic insufficient due to failure of the pancreatic ducts to secrete a HCO3- -rich fluid. Our aim in this study was to investigate the potential of a recombinant Sendai virus (SeV) vector to introduce normal CFTR into human CF pancreatic duct (CFPAC-1) cells, and to assess the effect of CFTR gene transfer on the key transporters involved in HCO3- transport. Using polarized cultures of homozygous F508del CFPAC-1 cells as a model for the human CF pancreatic ductal epithelium we showed that SeV was an efficient gene transfer agent when applied to the apical membrane. The presence of functional CFTR was confirmed using iodide efflux assay. CFTR expression had no effect on cell growth, monolayer integrity, and mRNA levels for key transporters in the duct cell (pNBC, AE2, NHE2, NHE3, DRA, and PAT-1), but did upregulate the activity of apical Cl-/HCO3- and Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs). In CFTR-corrected cells, apical Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity was further enhanced by cAMP, a key feature exhibited by normal pancreatic duct cells. The cAMP stimulated Cl-/HCO3- exchange was inhibited by dihydro-4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (H2-DIDS), but not by a specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172. Our data show that SeV vector is a potential CFTR gene transfer agent for human pancreatic duct cells and that expression of CFTR in CF cells is associated with a restoration of Cl- and HCO3- transport at the apical membrane.
" . Initially , the primary issue lay in establishing whether CFTR was a chloride channel or a channel regulator . Now , a large body of evidence is available indicating that CFTR is both an anion channel and a regulator of ion transporters and channels ( Anderson et al . , 1991a ; Bear et al . , 1992 ; Egan et al . , 1992 ; Stutts et al . , 1995 ; Lee et al . , 1999 ; Schwiebert et al . , 1999 ) . Therefore , when it was shown recently that expression of CFTR led to the appearance of GSH currents ( Linsdell and Hanrahan , 1998b ) , it became imperative to determine if CFTR mediated these currents directly . Resolving this issue is important because CFTR - mediated ¯ux of this major antioxidant coul"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is associated with enhanced glutathione (GSH) efflux from airway epithelial cells, implicating a role for CFTR in the control of oxidative stress in the airways. To define the mechanism underlying CFTR-associated GSH flux, we studied wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins expressed in Sf9 membranes, as well as purified and reconstituted CFTR. We show that CFTR-expressing membrane vesicles mediate nucleotide-activated GSH flux, which is disrupted in the R347D pore mutant, and in the Walker A K464A and K1250A mutants. Further, we reveal that purified CFTR protein alone directly mediates nucleotide-dependent GSH flux. Interestingly, although ATP supports GSH flux through CFTR, this activity is enhanced in the presence of the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog AMP-PNP. These findings corroborate previous suggestions that CFTR pore properties can vary with the nature of the nucleotide interaction. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that GSH flux is an intrinsic function of CFTR and prompt future examination of the role of this function in airway biology in health and disease.
The EMBO Journal 06/2003; 22(9):1981-9. DOI:10.1093/emboj/cdg194 · 10.43 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.