Relation of Calcium, Vitamin D, and Dairy Food Intake to Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Postmenopausal Women

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 02/1999; 149(2):151-61. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009781
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate whether greater intakes of calcium, vitamin D, or milk products may protect against ischemic heart disease mortality, the authors analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of 34,486 postmenopausal Iowa women 55-69 years old and without a history of ischemic heart disease who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1986. Through 1994, 387 deaths due to ischemic heart disease were documented (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes 410-414, 429.2). The multivariate-adjusted relative risks for the highest versus the lowest quartiles of total calcium, vitamin D, and milk product intakes were as follows: 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.94; p for trend = 0.09) for calcium, 1.41 (95% CI 0.93-2.15; p for trend = 0.12) for vitamin D, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.66-1.35; p for trend = 0.68) for milk products. The relative risk was 0.63 (95% CI 0.40-0.98) for high dietary calcium but no supplemental calcium intake and 0.66 (95% CI 0.36-1.23) for high supplemental calcium but low dietary calcium intake. These results suggest that a higher intake of calcium, but not of vitamin D or milk products, is associated with reduced ischemic heart disease mortality in postmenopausal women, and reduced risk may be achievable whether the higher intake of calcium is attained by diet, supplements, or both.

Download full-text


Available from: Thomas Sellers, Jun 22, 2014
60 Reads
  • Source
    • "Adequate dairy product consumption [7] [8] and higher dietary calcium intake were previously shown to exert a salutary effect on vascular health [10] [24]. We found that participants who consumed 5 serves or less per week (i.e. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Higher consumption of dairy products and calcium is likely to play a role in maintaining optimal vascular health. In this study, we aimed to explore the associations between consumption of total-, regular- and low-fat dairy foods, and total calcium intake with retinal vascular caliber. 2813 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants aged 50+ years had dietary data collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and serves of dairy consumption were calculated. Fundus photographs were taken and retinal vascular caliber measured using computer-assisted techniques and summarized. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, mean arterial blood pressure, serum glucose, white cell count, history of diagnosed hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease, plus retinal arteriolar caliber, participants in the lowest quintile of total dairy consumption compared to those in the remaining highest 4 quintiles had significantly wider retinal venular caliber, 227.2 versus 224.7 μm, respectively (multivariable-adjusted p = 0.002). Also, subjects in the lowest quintile of low-fat dairy product consumption versus those in the remaining quintiles of low-fat dairy intake had wider retinal venules (∼1.7 μm, p = 0.03) and narrower retinal arterioles (∼1.4 μm, p = 0.04). Participants in the lowest quintile versus highest quintile of total dietary calcium intake had ∼2.3 μm wider retinal venules (multivariable-adjusted p-trend = 0.02). A significant association was observed between lower intake of dairy products or calcium and adverse retinal vascular signs. We cannot discount the possibility of confounding from unmeasured risk factors; hence, further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 01/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.06.009 · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Many risk factors, both genetic and environmental, contribute to the development of this disease. In addition, a few studies, but not all, have suggested that dairy or calcium consumption was associated with lower risks for hypertension, coagulopathy, coronary artery disease, and stroke (Witteman et al., 1989; Abbott et al., 1996; Bostick et al., 1999; Iso et al., 1999; Mennen and Balicau, 1999; Ness et al., 2001;). It is evident that diet is an important modifiable risk factor. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting almost 6% of the world's population. Management of diabetes and its complications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), amputation, blindness, and renal failure, imposes enormous medical and economic burdens, primary prevention has become a public health imperative. Studies have shown that diet and lifestyle are important means of preventing CVD risk and type 2 diabetes. In addition, a few studies have suggested that dairy consumption was associated with lower risks for hypertension, coagulopathy, coronary artery disease, and stroke. By this time, published studies about relation between dairy consumption and type 2 diabetes are limited. In this review, the effects of dairy products on CVD and type 2 diabetes risk were summarized. Also, recent findings about these subjects were mentioned.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 06/2013; 53(9):902-8. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.572200 · 5.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Also, 64.5% of these adults consumed calcium under estimated average requirement (EAR) [17]. This national data indicate that the average calcium intake of Korean adults is within the range of high CVD related mortality risk or high prevalence of hypertension as reported by the previous researches [11,12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects.
    Nutrition research and practice 10/2012; 6(5):421-8. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2012.6.5.421 · 1.44 Impact Factor
Show more