Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis in children: Diagnostic value of histopathology and microbial testing
ABSTRACT Chronic recurrent, unifocal or multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), an inflammatory disorder of unknown origin, involves different osseous sites and may be associated with palmoplantar pustulosis. Bacterial cultures of affected tissue were reported negative in nearly all cases. Radiological and magnetic resonance imaging features of CRMO have been described, but differential diagnosis remains difficult, including rheumatic diseases, bacterial osteomyelitis, and malignancy. Although definite diagnosis relies on histopathologic confirmation by biopsy, histopathologic criteria have not been defined. Because CRMO may be treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, but not antibiotics, distinguishing CRMO from bacterial osteomyelitis is of major importance. Histopathologic analysis of 12 patients with CRMO indicated a wide variation of reparative changes of bone, but chronic inflammation could not be found at all sites in the same biopsy. The inflammatory infiltrate was mostly scattered, consisting mainly of lymphocytes, plasma cells, histiocytes, and also few neutrophil granulocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed a predominance of CD3(+), CD45RO(+) T-cells, which were mainly CD8(+). In addition, CD20(+) B cells and CD68(+) macrophages were abundant in each biopsy specimen. Mild lymphocytic and granulocytic infiltrates were also detected in three synovial biopsy specimens obtained from adjacent joints. All bacterial and fungal cultures from native biopsy tissues were negative. Amplification of partial-length 16S ribosomal DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range eubacterial primers was below the detection limit in all patients. Because histopathologic features alone may not provide conclusive evidence, CRMO should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bone lesions in children, and the definite diagnosis should be made by the clinical picture, x-ray studies, bone scan, bacterial culture, and histopathologic analysis in a multidisciplinary approach.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome are autoinflammatory disorder(s) in which sterile osteomyelitis is frequently accompanied by inflammatory conditions of the joints, skin, or intestine. Patients with CRMO commonly have a personal or family history of psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory arthritis, suggesting shared disease pathogenesis. Work by our group and others has demonstrated that dysregulation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling can drive sterile osteomyelitis in the two human monogenic forms of the disease. Recent work in the chronic multifocal osteomyelitis (cmo) mouse model demonstrates that the disease is IL-1-mediated, that neutrophils are critical effector cells and that both caspase-1 and caspase-8 play redundant roles in mediating the cleavage of pro-IL-1β into its biologically active form. Recent data in the cmo mouse demonstrate that dietary manipulation alters the cmo microbiome and can prevent the development of osteomyelitis. Further investigation is needed to determine the specific components of the diet that result in protection from disease and if this finding can be translated into a treatment for human CRMO.Seminars in Immunopathology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00281-015-0488-2 · 6.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bei der CRMO handelt es sich um die seltene Form einer chronisch endogenen, aseptischen Osteomyelitis unbekannter Ätiologie. Am Beispiel einer 42-jährigen Patientin mit der Diagnose einer CRMO, deren untypischem Verlauf mit spätem Krankheitsbeginn und dem bislang nur selten beschriebenen Befall der Mandibula, wird die für die Diagnostik und Therapie entscheidende Kenntnis der verschiedenen Formen der Osteomyelitis differentialdiagnostisch aufgearbeitet. Die Patientin kam mit der Diagnose einer antibiotisch mehrfach erfolglos vorbehandelten primär chronischen Osteomyelitis in unsere Klinik. Diagnostisch blieb der Keimnachweis aus. Die in der Skelettszintigraphie nachgewiesenen multifokalen Herde führten zu der Diagnose einer CRMO, zu der auch die begleitende Pustulosis palmoplantaris paßt. Daraufhin wurde die Therapie auf Prednisolon und Diclofenac umgestellt, was zu einer Vollremission aller Befunde führte. Entscheidend für die Therapie der CRMO ist somit eine frühe Diagnosestellung.
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ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatasia (HP) is characterized by a genetic defect in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene and predominantly an autosomal recessive trait. HP patients suffer from reduced bone mineralization. Biochemically, elevated concentrations of substrates of TNSALP, including pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and inorganic pyrophosphate occur in serum, tissues and urine. The latter has been associated with chronic inflammation and hyperprostaglandinism. We report on 2 affected children presenting with multifocal inflammatory bone lesions mimicking malignancy: A 6 years old girl with short stature had been treated with human growth hormone since 6 months. Then she started to complain about a painful swelling of her left cheek. MRI suggested a malignant bone lesion. Bone biopsy, however, revealed chronic inflammation. A bone scan showed a second rib lesion. Since biopsy was sterile, the descriptive diagnosis of chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) was established. The diagnostic tests related to growth failure were repeated and subsequent analyses demonstrated a molecular defect in the TNSALP gene. The second girl (10 years old) complained about back pain after she had fallen from her bike. X rays of her spine revealed compressions of 2 thoracic vertebrae. At first these were considered trauma related, however a bone scan did show an additional lesion in the right 4th rib. A biopsy of this rib revealed a sterile lympho- plasmocytoid osteomyelitis suggesting multifocal CNO. Further analyses did show a decreased TNSALP in leukocytes and elevated pyridoxal phosphate in plasma, suggesting a heterozygous carrier status of HP. Chronic bone oedema in adult HP and chronic hyper-prostaglandinism in childhood HP do suggest that in some HP patients bone inflammation is present in conjunction with the metabolic defect. Sterile multifocal osteomyelitis could be demonstrated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment achieved complete remission. These cases illustrate chronic inflammation of the bone as a new feature of HP.BMC Pediatrics 02/2007; 7:3. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-7-3 · 1.92 Impact Factor