Dietary factors and the risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer among black and white men in the United States.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-7368, USA.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.96). 11/1998; 9(5):467-74. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008861806923
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate dietary factors for squamous cell esophageal cancer and whether these factors may contribute to the five-fold higher incidence of this cancer in the black versus white population of the United States.
Data from a food frequency questionnaire were analyzed for 114 white men and 219 black men with squamous cell esophageal cancer, and 681 white and 557 black male controls from three areas of the United States who participated in a population-based case-control study of esophageal cancer.
Protective effects were associated with intake of raw fruits and vegetables (odds ratio for high versus low consumers = 0.3 in both white and black men) and use of vitamin supplements (especially vitamin C; odds ratio for high versus low consumers = 0.4 in both races), with the frequency of consumption of raw fruits and vegetables and vitamin supplements being greater for white than black controls. In addition, elevated risks were associated with high versus low intake of red meat (OR = 2.7 for blacks and 1.5 for whites) and processed meat (OR = 1.6 for blacks and 1.7 for whites), with the levels of consumption being greater for black than white controls.
In the United States, these dietary factors may contribute in part to the much higher incidence of squamous cell esophageal cancer among black compared to white men.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus (EA), gastric cardia (GC), and other (noncardia) gastric (OG) sites have been identified, little is known about interactions among risk factors. We sought to examine interactions of diet, other lifestyle, and medical factors with risks of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancers. We used classification tree analysis to analyze data from a population-based case-control study (1095 cases, 687 controls) conducted in Connecticut, New Jersey, and western Washington State. Frequency of reported gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms was the most important risk stratification factor for EA, GC, and OG, with dietary factors (EA, OG), smoking (EA, GC), wine intake (GC, OG), age (OG), and income (OG) appearing to modify the risk of these cancer sites. For esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, smoking was the most important risk stratification factor, with gastroesophageal reflux disease, income, race, noncitrus fruit, and energy intakes further modifying risk. Various combinations of risk factors appear to interact to affect risk of each cancer subtype. Replication of these data mining analyses are required before suggesting causal pathways; however, the classification tree results are useful in partitioning risk and mapping multilevel interactions among risk variables.
    Annals of epidemiology 10/2013; · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mortality rates from prostate cancer are significantly higher among African Americans than Caucasian Americans and are inversely related to the availability of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. These findings support the hypothesis, originally proposed in 1990, that prostate cancer may be caused by vitamin D deficiency. In 1992, specific receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] were demonstrated in human prostate cells. We and others have shown that 1,25(OH)2D exerts prodifferentiating, antiproliferative, and antimetastatic effects on these cells. In 1998 we demonstrated that normal prostate cells express 1α-hydroxylase and synthesize their own 1,25(OH)2D. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D is an autocrine hormone in the prostate. The consensus emerging from analytic epidemiologic studies is that low levels of UV radiation/vitamin D are indeed associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in individual men. The evolution of our understanding of the role of vitamin D in the epidemiology of prostate cancer parallels our understanding of the role of vitamin D in the epidemiology of rickets. In both diseases, ecologic observations about UV radiation preceded experimental observations and were subsequently validated by them.
    Seminars in Dialysis 07/2005; 18(4). · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A multicenter hospital-based case-control study comprising 670 incident cases of esophageal cancer (EC) and 1188 controls, frequency-matched for age and sex, was conducted to evaluate the role of diet on EC development in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A locally relevant lifestyle and dietary questionnaire was used. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional multivariable logistic regression. Individually, maize or sorghum consumption vs. never or rare consumption were not associated with EC (P > 0.1). Males and females consuming green leafy vegetables 5–7 days/wk had 38% (P = 0.04) and 50% (P = 0.007) reduced odds of developing EC, respectively, compared with consumption ≤1 day/wk. A similar reduction in odds was observed with fruit consumption. Principal component factor analysis revealed 3 distinct dietary patterns. In females, high vs. low consumption of Pattern 1 (sorghum, green leafy vegetables, green legumes, fruits, meat) was inversely associated with EC development (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.34–0.89), whereas for Pattern 2 (maize, wild greens-imifino, dry beans) the odds were elevated (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.04–2.67). Compared with low adherence, high adherence to Pattern 3 (wheat-based products) reduced the odds by 35% for both sexes. This study provides further evidence on the role of diet in minimizing EC risk in this population.
    Nutrition and Cancer 05/2014; 66(5). · 2.47 Impact Factor