Dietary factors and the risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer among black and white men in the United States.
ABSTRACT To investigate dietary factors for squamous cell esophageal cancer and whether these factors may contribute to the five-fold higher incidence of this cancer in the black versus white population of the United States.
Data from a food frequency questionnaire were analyzed for 114 white men and 219 black men with squamous cell esophageal cancer, and 681 white and 557 black male controls from three areas of the United States who participated in a population-based case-control study of esophageal cancer.
Protective effects were associated with intake of raw fruits and vegetables (odds ratio for high versus low consumers = 0.3 in both white and black men) and use of vitamin supplements (especially vitamin C; odds ratio for high versus low consumers = 0.4 in both races), with the frequency of consumption of raw fruits and vegetables and vitamin supplements being greater for white than black controls. In addition, elevated risks were associated with high versus low intake of red meat (OR = 2.7 for blacks and 1.5 for whites) and processed meat (OR = 1.6 for blacks and 1.7 for whites), with the levels of consumption being greater for black than white controls.
In the United States, these dietary factors may contribute in part to the much higher incidence of squamous cell esophageal cancer among black compared to white men.
- SourceAvailable from: Henrik Moller[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Linzhou City has one of the highest incidences of oesophageal cancer in China, and in the world. A case-control study was here conducted to investigate potential risk factors in this area. Linzhou Cancer Registry was used to identify cases of oesophageal cancer, aged between 30 and 75, diagnosed between January 1998 and April 1999. Three neighbourhood controls were selected for each case, matched according to age, sex and village of residence. A total of 211 cases and 633 controls were interviewed. A strong association was found between socio-economic status and the risk of oesophageal cancer. Increased income, residential space and education were all significantly associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.54, 0.36 and 0.30 respectively). Using a drinking water source other than tap water was significantly associated with an increased risk (OR 5.49). The consumption of beans, vegetables and vinegar all showed a protective effect with odds ratios of 0.37, 0.44 and 0.37 respectively. Preferences for a low salt diet or a high salt diet were both associated with an increased risk. It can be concluded that in Linzhou, oesophageal cancer is a disease related to poverty. Having a drinking water source other than tap water increases the risk of oesophageal cancer. As in other populations, a high consumption of vegetables and beans are associated with a decreased risk and a preference for a high salt diet is associated with an increased risk.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 4(2):119-24. · 1.50 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2015; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.107847 · 6.92 Impact Factor