Article

The impact of physician bonuses, enhanced fees, and feedback on childhood immunization coverage rates.

Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Bronx, NY 10467, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.23). 02/1999; 89(2):171-5. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.89.2.171
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the effects on immunization coverage of 3 incentives for physicians--a cash bonus for practice--wide increases, enhanced fee for service, and feedback.
Incentives were applied at 4-month intervals over 1 year among 60 inner-city office-based pediatricians. At each interval, charts of 50 randomly selected children between 3 and 35 months of age were reviewed per physician.
The percentage of children who were up to date for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b; polio; and measles-mumps-rubella immunization in the study's bonus group improved by 25.3 percentage points (P < .01). No significant changes occurred in the other groups. However, percentage of immunizations received outside the participating practice also increased significantly in the bonus group (P < .01). Levels of missed opportunities to immunize were high in all groups and did not change over time. Physicians' knowledge of contraindications was low.
Bonuses sharply and rapidly increased immunization cover-age in medical records. However, much of the increase was the result of better documentation. A bonus is a powerful incentive, but more structure or education may be necessary to achieve the desired results.

1 Follower
 · 
77 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of a "piece-rate" pay for performance (P4P) program aimed at improving diabetes care processes, outcomes and related healthcare utilization for patients enrolled in a not-for-profit Medicaid-focused managed care plan. To evaluate Hudson Health Plan's P4P program in New York (2003-2007), we conducted: (1) a case-comparison difference-in-difference study using plan-level administrative data; (2) a patient-level claims data analysis; and (3) a cross-sectional survey. The case-comparison study found that diabetes care processes (e.g., HbA1c, lipid, and dilated eye exam rates) and outcomes (e.g., LDL-C<100mg/dL) did not improve significantly over the study period. Claims analysis showed that younger adults had significantly increased odds (OR 3.50-3.56, p<0.001) of using emergency and hospital-based services and similarly decreased odds of receiving recommended care process (OR 0.22-0.36, p<0.01-0.001). Survey study indicated that practices lack fundamental quality improvement infrastructures and training. Recent health legislation mandates the use of P4P incentives in government programs that disproportionately care for patients with lower socioeconomic or minority backgrounds (e.g., Medicaid, Veterans Health Administration, and Tricare). More research is needed in order to understand how to tailor P4P programs for vulnerable care settings.
    Preventive Medicine 11/2012; 55 Suppl:S80-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.05.004 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors.
    Vaccine 04/2012; 30(26):3862-6. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.04.014 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of a "piece-rate" pay-for-performance (P4P) program aimed at rewarding up-to-date immunization delivery to 2-year-olds according to the recommended series. Plan-level data from New York State's Quality Assurance Reporting Requirement and claims data from Hudson Health Plan for 2003-2007. In 2003 Hudson Health Plan, a not-for-profit Medicaid-focused managed care plan, introduced a U.S.$200 bonus payment for each fully immunized 2-year-old and provided administrative supports for identifying children who may need immunization. This represented a potential bonus of 15-25 percent above base reimbursement for eligible 2-year-olds. Case-comparison and interrupted times series. Immunization rates within Hudson Health Plan rose at a significantly, albeit modestly, higher rate than the robust secular trend noted among comparison health plans. Supplementary analyses suggest that there was no significant change in preexisting disparities during the study period, and that children with chronic conditions have significantly greater odds of being fully immunized during the entire study period. This study suggests that a piece-rate P4P program with appropriate administrative supports can be effective at improving childhood immunization rates.
    Health Services Research 12/2010; 45(6 Pt 2):1934-47. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2010.01168.x · 2.49 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from