Adenylyl cyclase P-site ligands accelerate differentiation in Ob1771 preadipocytes.
ABSTRACT Differentiation of Ob1771 preadipocytes to adipocytes was characterized by morphological changes and elevated expression of the specific marker enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. A differentiation response substantially more complete and rapid than that obtained with insulin and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine was observed with established inhibitors of adenylyl cyclases: 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine (2',5'-dd-Ado), 9-(cyclopentyl)adenine (9-CP-Ade), and 9-(arabinofuranosyl)adenine (9-Ara-Ade), coincident with decreased cellular cAMP levels. These ligands inhibit adenylyl cyclases noncompetitively, via a domain referred to as the P-site because of its requirement for an intact purine moiety. Differentiation was not induced by inosine, a nucleoside known not to act at the P-site, or by N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine or 1, 3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine, agonist and antagonist, respectively, for adenosine A1 receptors. Also ineffective were IBMX or forskolin, agents that can raise intracellular cAMP levels. Potency of the differentiation response followed the order 2',5'-dd-Ado (1-20 microM) > 9-CP-Ade (10-100 microM) = 9-Ara-Ade (10-100 microM) > inosine, consistent with their potencies to inhibit adenylyl cyclases. The data suggest that inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via the P-site and the consequent reduction in cell cAMP levels facilitate the induction of differentiation in Ob1771 cells. The findings raise the question whether the known endogenous P-site ligands participate in the differentiation response induced by hormones.
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ABSTRACT: At least nine closely related isoforms of adenylyl cyclases (ACs), the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP, have been cloned and characterized in mammals. Depending on the properties and the relative levels of the isoforms expressed in a tissue or a cell type at a specific time, extracellular signals received through the G-protein-coupled receptors can be differentially integrated. The present review deals with various aspects of such regulations, emphasizing the role of calcium/calmodulin in activating AC1 and AC8 in the central nervous system, the potential inhibitory effect of calcium on AC5 and AC6, and the changes in the expression pattern of the isoforms during development. A particular emphasis is given to the role of cAMP during drug and ethanol dependency and to some experimental limitations (pitfalls in the interpretation of cellular transfection, scarcity of the invalidation models, existence of complex macromolecular structures, etc).Annual Review of Pharmacology 02/2001; 41:145-74. · 21.64 Impact Factor