Effects of optimism, pessimism, and trait anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure and mood during everyday life

Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 02/1999; 76(1):104-13. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.76.1.104
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study tested whether dispositional measures of optimism, pessimism, and anxiety affected ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and mood and whether any cardiovascular effects of dispositions were moderated by mood. Pessimistic and anxious adults had higher BP levels and felt more negative and less positive than did optimists or low anxious adults throughout the monitoring. The few times that optimists did feel negative were associated with levels of BP as high as those observed among pessimists or anxious individuals, regardless of their mood. To the extent that trait anxiety measures neuroticism, these findings suggest that neuroticism is directly related to health indicators rather than simply to illness behavior. Furthermore, the results suggest that pessimism has broad physiological and psychological consequences.

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    • "Nevertheless, in the last decades several authors reported results supporting the hypothesis that Optimism and Pessimism are two distinct constructs with different patterns of correlations with other psychological constructs [64–70]. Recently, similar results have been found for the BHS: in a sample of medical patients, a bifactor model was the best-fitting solution and the most parsimonious among models evaluated [71]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives and Methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, whether cognitive vulnerabilities (CV), as measured by three well-known instruments (the Beck Hopelessness Scale, BHS; the Life Orientation Test-Revised, LOT-R; and the Attitudes Toward Self-Revised, ATS-R), independently discriminate between subjects with different severities of depression. Participants were 467 young adults (336 females and 131 males), recruited from the general population. The subjects were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Results. Four first-order (BHS Optimism/Low Standard; BHS Pessimism; Generalized Self-Criticism; and LOT Optimism) and two higher-order factors (Pessimism/Negative Attitudes Toward Self, Optimism) were extracted using Principal Axis Factoring analysis. Although all first-order and second-order factors were able to discriminate individuals with different depression severities, the Pessimism factor had the best performance in discriminating individuals with moderate to severe depression from those with lower depression severity. Conclusion. In the screening of young adults at risk of depression, clinicians have to pay particular attention to the expression of pessimism about the future.
    Depression research and treatment 08/2013; 2013(377):407602. DOI:10.1155/2013/407602
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    • "For example, previous research showed that the presence of pessimism , but not the absence of optimism, was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in a college population (Chang et al. 1997). In addition, higher levels of optimism , but not lower levels of pessimism, were found to be related to lower diastolic pressure (Raikkonen et al. 1999). Findings of these and similar research indicated that the presence of optimism and the lack of pessimism were not identical (and vice versa), and that valuable information could be easily overlooked if optimism and pessimism scores were not examined separately. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main aim of this research was to evaluate psychometric properties and dimensionality of the Serbian version of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). The sample consisted of 744 youths, with a mean age 18.68 years. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the LOT-R were found to be satisfactory. The total scale and both subscales (Optimism and Pessimism) had adequate internal consistency. Convergent validity was demonstrated by moderate correlations with well-being measures (positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, hope, self-efficacy, loneliness and general distress). The results of confirmatory factor analyses yielded two correlated dimensions reflecting optimism and pessimism, and provided support for the two-factor model of optimism. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses demonstrated that both optimism and pessimism contributed uniquely to various indicators of well-being. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.
    Journal of Happiness Studies 06/2013; 14(3). DOI:10.1007/s10902-012-9354-2 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Positive affect is defined as feelings that reflect a state of high energy, full concentration and a level of pleasurable engagement with the environment, such as joy, happiness and contentment (Cohen and Pressman, 2006). Positive affect can confer benefit to individuals beyond the feeling of well-being, given that it has been associated with an overall prolonged healthy life expectancy (Chida and Steptoe, 2008; Steptoe et al., 2007), reduced blood pressure (Brummett et al., 2009; Raikkonen et al., 1999; Steptoe et al., 2007), a higher heart rate variability (Bhattacharyya et al., 2008) and a reduced risk for stroke, coronary heart disease (Kubzansky and Thurston, 2007) and hypertension (Pelle et al., 2011; Steptoe et al., 2007). The mechanisms responsible for the link between positive affect and improved health ought to be found in behavioral and biological pathways such as a healthy lifestyle and inflammation (Dockray and Steptoe, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In cardiac patients positive affect has found to be associated with improved clinical outcomes, with reduced inflammation being one of the potential mechanisms responsible. Methods: Positive affect was assessed using The Global Mood Scale (GMS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patient with chronic heart failure (N=210; 67 ± 9 years, 79% men). Markers of inflammation (TNFα, sTNFr1, sTNFr2, IL-6 and CRP) were measured and averaged at three consecutive time points. Results: The positive affect dimensions of the GMS and PANAS were significantly associated with lower averaged levels of sTNFr2, TNFα and IL-6 (p<.1), even after adjustment for clinical and lifestyle confounders. Positive affect of the HADS was significantly associated with lower averaged levels of hsCRP (p<.1), but was no longer significant after correction for lifestyle confounders and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Positive affect is associated with reduced inflammation in patients with heart failure.
    Biological psychology 10/2012; 92(2). DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.10.002 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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