Although the ThinPrep Pap Test is replacing conventional Pap smears in many clinical practices, experience with the identification of glandular lesions is limited. In this study, ThinPrep cytology of glandular lesions was evaluated in a large, inner city teaching hospital with high rates of glandular abnormality.
Six months of ThinPrep diagnoses in 1998, following nearly 100% conversion of the laboratory to the ThinPrep Pap Test, were compared to January-December 1997 conventional smear diagnoses for glandular disease. Biopsy confirmation was evaluated for these cases. Findings on all biopsy-confirmed glandular cases were also compared to findings on cytology.
Similar overall rates of glandular cytology were found. For conventional smears (12 months), 46 cases were diagnosed out of 43,289 smears (0.11%). For ThinPrep cytology (six months), 36 cases were diagnosed out of 25,783 slides (0.14%, P = NS). In the year 1997, 9 biopsy-confirmed conventional smear diagnoses of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) or adenocarcinoma were noted versus 10 for six months of 1998 for the ThinPrep method. A statistically significant reduction in the number of miscellaneous nonglandular (squamous) biopsy diagnoses were found with ThinPrep glandular cytology (14 vs. 4 cases, P < .05). For known biopsy-confirmed glandular cases of AIS or adenocarcinoma, a statistically significant reduction in the cytology false negative rate was noted with the ThinPrep method (17 vs. 4 cases, P < .02).
The ThinPrep method provides more accurate diagnoses of glandular disease, with an increase in both sensitivity and specificity for glandular lesions.
"The reason for this low sensitivity may be the difficulties in obtaining cells in the endocervical canal or non-specific misreading of glandular lesions. Liquid-based cytology may provide more accurate diagnoses of glandular disease since the preparation allows a monolayer of cells to form and interpretation errors are reduced (36). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence rates of cervical adenocarcinoma have been increasing over the last two decades, contrary to those of squamous cell carcinoma. This trend is particularly evident among females aged <40 years and has occurred despite extensive cytology-based screening programs. The aim of the present retrospective database study was to investigate adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) with respect to previous cytological results, high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and histological results from AIS-adjacent squamous mucosa. Databases were used to identify 32 female patients with AIS treated for various conditions between 2009 and 2012 at the Department of Gynecology, Uppsala University Hospital (Uppsala, Sweden) and previous cytological, HPV and histological results. Of the individuals in the study, 64.3% had a previously recorded cytological result showing squamous cell abnormalities; five had glandular cell abnormalities (18%) and two had AIS (7.1%). Among the patients with available HPV results, 95% were HR-HPV-positive; HPV18/45 predominated (77%), followed by HPV16 (27%). The patients with multiple HPV infections were aged ≤32 years, while patients aged ≥38 years were only infected with HPV18/45. All but three patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in the AIS-adjacent squamous mucosa, 79% of which was CIN2 or worse. The present retrospective database study suggests that AIS is detected at screening mainly due to simultaneous squamous precursor lesions and that HPV18/45 infection is an increasing cofactor for AIS in older patients. HPV analyses of glandular precursor lesions aid in the identification of female individuals at risk of progression to invasive disease, and thus have a favorable effect on adenocarcinoma prevention, together with vaccination.
"Data currently being gathered, but as yet unpublished, from laboratories within a large region of England categorised as the North East, Yorkshire and The Humber indicates that, in laboratories that have converted to LBC, the percentage of smears showing evidence of TZ sampling has risen by between 10% and 12% and that the detection rates for glandular abnormality (confirmed by biopsy) have also been significantly increased. Since the majority of General Practices switched from using the spatula to the Cervex brush with the introduction of LBC, it may be that the change from the extended-tip spatula to the Cervex brush could, at least in part, reflect some of the increased detection of glandular neoplasia following conversion from conventional cytology to LBC. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within the United Kingdom, the change from conventional to liquid based cytology (LBC) has brought with it the universal introduction of broom style samplers, as represented by the Cervex sampler. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not there were benefits associated with a change from wooden spatulae to broom style samplers for those countries where conversion to LBC might not be readily available or is not fully supported.
A longitudinal study was designed to compare the performance of Cervex brushes and extended-tip wooden spatulae as sampling devices for conventionally prepared cervical smears. General Practices serving the population of Hull and East Yorkshire (UK) were provided with Cervex brushes for a period of nine months to routinely collect cervical smears. The results of 66,931 cervical smear tests were compared between those practices that were using extended-tip wooden spatulae before the trial and then returned to their use afterwards, and those who were previously using Cervex samplers and continued to use them throughout. Analyses comparing both specimen inadequacy, as recorded on the standard cervical screening request form (HMR101), and also the presence of identified transformation zone (TZ) elements in smears, both indicated significant advantages associated with the Cervex brush.
Inadequate smears decreased from 5.96% with extended-tip spatulae to 4.77% with Cervex brushes (p<0.001) and increased back to 7.34% when practices reverted to extended-tip spatulae after nine months. Under the same conditions, the proportion of smears containing identified TZ elements increased from 50.52% to 54.75% (p<0.001), before reverting to 45.47% (p<0.001). In contrast, for a control group of practices using the Cervex brush throughout, inadequate smears decreased in all phases of the study, with no significant variation in TZ sampling rates.
Using the Cervex brush with conventional cytology significantly decreases inadequate smears and increases TZ sampling when compared to the extended-tip spatula and can offer improved cervical screening in countries unable or unwilling to convert to LBC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the cytologic features that are most helpful in characterizing significant glandular lesions of the cervix observed on the ThinPrep (TP) Pap test (Cytyc Corp., Boxborough, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) and to compare these features with those published for conventional smears.
Thirty-nine TP preparations with cytologic evidence of glandular lesions of the cervix and histologic and/or clinical correlation were studied. These lesions included (1) 11 cases of benign/reactive conditions; (2) 10 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), of which 1 had both AIS and carcinoma in situ; (3) 1 case of invasive adenocarcinoma; (4) 15 cases of squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous cell carcinoma, including 4 with glandular involvement, and (5) 2 cases of adenosquamous cell carcinoma. These cases were reviewed by the first author without knowledge of the histologic diagnosis. Twenty-five previously published cytologic criteria were used to evaluate glandular cells on TP slides. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test to determine the significance of the features studied.
All glandular lesions had cytologic features on TP similar to those previously described on conventional smears. However, TP slides demonstrated enhanced nuclear features but less-preserved architectural patterns. Reactive lesions showed minimal overlapping without hyperchromasia or mitotic figures and with normal nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios. AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma cases had similar features. Increased cellularity and overcrowding were prominent, whereas feathering, rosettes and cell strips were present but subtle.
Glandular lesions of the cervix on TP slides shared many of the characteristic features reported for conventional smears. However, nuclear details were more pronounced in TP slides, while architectural patterns, although present, were relatively subtle.
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