Suicide risk assessment: a review of risk factors for suicide in 100 patients who made severe suicide attempts. Evaluation of suicide risk in a time of managed care.
ABSTRACT A study of 100 patients who made a severe suicide attempt suggested that the managed care criteria often applied for approving admission to hospitals for potentially suicidal patients were not, in fact, predictive of features seen in patients who actually made such attempts. Severe anxiety, panic attacks, a depressed mood, a diagnosis of major affective disorder, recent loss of an interpersonal relationship, recent abuse of alcohol or illicit substances coupled with feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness, global or partial insomnia, anhedonia, inability to maintain a job, and the recent onset of impulsive behavior were excellent predictors of suicidal behavior. The presence of a specific suicide plan or suicide note were not. Patients with managed care were overrepresented by 245% in the study.
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ABSTRACT: According to the interpersonal theory of suicide (1, 2), the difficulties inherently associated with death by suicide deter many individuals from engaging in suicidal behavior. Consistent with the notion that suicide is fearsome, acute states of heightened arousal are commonly observed in individuals immediately prior to lethal and near-lethal suicidal behavior. We suggest that among individuals who possess elevated levels of the capability for suicide, the heightened state of arousal experienced during periods of acute agitation may facilitate suicidal behavior in part because it would provide the necessary energy to approach a potentially lethal stimulus. Among individuals who are low on capability, the arousal experienced during agitation may result in further avoidance. In the present project we examine how acute agitation may interact with the capability for suicide to predict suicidality in a large military sample (n = 1,208) using hierarchical multiple regression. Results were in line with a priori hypotheses: among individuals high on capability, as agitation increases, suicidality increases whereas as agitation increases among individuals low on capability, suicidality decreases. Results held beyond the effects of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal cognitions. Beyond further substantiating the link between agitation and suicide, findings of the present study provide evidence for the construct validity of the acquired capability as well as offer initial evidence for moderating role of capability on the effect of agitation on suicide. Limitations of the current study highlight a need for future research that improves upon the techniques used in the present study. Implications for science and practice are discussed.Depression and Anxiety 01/2015; 32(1). DOI:10.1002/da.22240 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although sleep disorders are a risk factor for suicidal behavior little research has examined why sleep disorders confer suicide risk. The present study examined the relation between two sleep disorders, insomnia symptoms and nightmares, and suicide risk in the context of Joiner's interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS). The present study utilized two large samples (N=747 and 604) recruited from two large public universities in the Southeast. Both studies included measures of insomnia symptoms, nightmares, depressive symptoms, and prior suicide attempts. In addition, study one contained a measure of suicide risk. In study 1, the relations between insomnia symptoms and both suicide risk and prior attempts were not significant after controlling for the IPTS. However, nightmares were related to both suicide risk and suicide attempts independent of the IPTS. Furthermore, nightmares nearly missed significance in the prediction of suicide risk (p=0.054) and significantly predicted suicide attempts even after controlling for depressive symptoms. In study 2, both insomnia and nightmares were found to be significantly associated with prior suicide attempts after controlling for the IPTS and depressive symptoms. The study is limited by its use of a college sample and cross-sectional design. These studies suggest that the IPTS may not explain the relation between sleep problems and suicidality. More research is needed to understand the mechanism by which sleep disorders confer suicide risk, which is clinically relevant as it may inform specific interventions to reduce the adverse effects of sleep disorders.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2013; 152. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.10.011 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives.Prior research has found that insomnia symptoms and nightmares are associated with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has examined the relation between insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicidal ideation in older adults. The current project aimed to fill this void by investigating the relation between insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicidal ideation in an older adult sample.Method.The study utilized a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 81 older adult patients (age ≥ 65 years) recruited from a family medicine clinic. The participants were asked to complete surveys about their sleep, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: Insomnia symptoms, but not nightmares, were significantly related to suicidal ideation. In addition, insomnia symptoms were related to suicidal ideation independent of nightmares. Furthermore, the relation between insomnia symptoms and suicidal ideation was mediated by depressive symptoms.Discussion.These findings have implications for the identification and treatment of suicidal ideation in older adults.The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 08/2012; DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbs061 · 2.85 Impact Factor