Characterization of mutations in the genedoublecortin in patients with double cortex syndrome
ABSTRACT Mutations in the X-linked gene doublecortin, which encodes a protein with no dear structural homologues, are found in pedigrees in which affected females show "double cortex" syndrome (DC; also known as subcortical band heterotopia or laminar heterotopia) and affected males show X-linked lissencephaly. Mutations in doublecortin also cause sporadic DC in females. To determine the incidence of doublecortin mutations in DC, we investigated a cohort of eight pedigrees and 47 sporadic patients with DC for mutations in the doublecortin open reading frame as assessed by single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis. Mutations were identified in each of the eight DC pedigrees (100%), and in 18 of the 47 sporadic DC patients (38%). Identified mutations were of two types, protein truncation mutations and single amino acid substitution mutations. However, pedigrees with DC displayed almost exclusively single amino acid substitution mutations, suggesting that patients with these mutations may have less of a reproductive disadvantage versus those patients with protein truncation mutations. Single amino acid substitution mutations were tightly clustered in two regions of the open reading frame, suggesting that these two regions are critical for the function of the Doublecortin protein.
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- "Because of its 5 polycystic kidney domains, it has been suggested that this gene plays a role in cell adhesion, and is therefore consistent with its being involved in neural cell adhesion . DCDC2 is one of an eleven-member group of proteins distinguished by the presence of doublecortin domains –. The doublecortin domain is critical for binding to and stabilizing microtubules , and two members of this family (DCX and DCLK) have been shown to interactively affect axon outgrowth and neocortical neuronal migration , . Overexpression of the N- terminal p23 domain of DYX1C1 protein can interact with Hsp70, Hsp90 and CHIP, all of which point toward its role in degradation of unfolded proteins , . "
ABSTRACT: Developmental dyslexia is a language learning disorder that affects approximately 4-10% of the population. A number of candidate dyslexia susceptibility genes have been identified, including DCDC2 and KIAA0319 on Chromosome (Chr) 6p22.2 and DYX1C1 on Chr 15q21. Embryonic knockdown of the function of homologs of these genes in rat neocortical projection cell progenitors by in utero electroporation of plasmids encoding small hairpin RNA (shRNA) revealed that all three genes disrupted neuronal migration to the neocortex. Specifically, this disruption would result in heterotopia formation (Dyx1c1 and Kiaa0319) and/or overmigration past their expected laminar location (Dyx1c1 and Dcdc2). In these experiments, neurons normally destined for the upper neocortical laminæ were transfected on embryonic day (E) 15.5, and we designed experiments to test whether these migration phenotypes were the result of targeting a specific type of projection neuron. We transfected litters with Dcdc2 shRNA, Dyx1c1 shRNA, Kiaa0319 shRNA, or fluorescent protein (as a control) at each of three gestational ages (E14.5, E15.5, or E16.5). Pups were allowed to come to term, and their brains were examined at 3 weeks of age for the position of transfected cells. We found that age of transfection did not affect the percentage of unmigrated neurons-transfection with Kiaa0319 shRNA resulted in heterotopia formation at all three ages. Overmigration of neurons transfected with Dcdc2 shRNA, while present following transfections at the later ages, did not occur following E14.5 transfections. These results are considered in light of the known functions of each of these candidate dyslexia susceptibility genes.PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e65179. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065179 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "An essential factor for the development of the embryonic brain and nervous system is a protein called Doublecortin (dcx). Mutations in this gene in mammalian systems result in disruption of cortical neuronal migration . An orthologous cDNA to dcx was identified as a library specific gene. "
ABSTRACT: Tsetse flies, vectors of African trypanosomes, undergo viviparous reproduction (the deposition of live offspring). This reproductive strategy results in a large maternal investment and the deposition of a small number of progeny during a female's lifespan. The reproductive biology of tsetse has been studied on a physiological level; however the molecular analysis of tsetse reproduction requires deeper investigation. To build a foundation from which to base molecular studies of tsetse reproduction, a cDNA library was generated from female tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans) reproductive tissues and the intrauterine developmental stages. 3438 expressed sequence tags were sequenced and analyzed. Analysis of a nonredundant catalogue of 1391 contigs resulted in 520 predicted proteins. 475 of these proteins were full length. We predict that 412 of these represent cytoplasmic proteins while 57 are secreted. Comparison of these proteins with other tissue specific tsetse cDNA libraries (salivary gland, fat body/milk gland, and midgut) identified 51 that are unique to the reproductive/immature cDNA library. 11 unique proteins were homologous to uncharacterized putative proteins within the NR database suggesting the identification of novel genes associated with reproductive functions in other insects (hypothetical conserved). The analysis also yielded seven putative proteins without significant homology to sequences present in the public database (unknown genes). These proteins may represent unique functions associated with tsetse's viviparous reproductive cycle. RT-PCR analysis of hypothetical conserved and unknown contigs was performed to determine basic tissue and stage specificity of the expression of these genes. This paper identifies 51 putative proteins specific to a tsetse reproductive/immature EST library. 11 of these proteins correspond to hypothetical conserved genes and 7 proteins are tsetse specific.BMC Genomics 03/2010; 11(1):160. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-11-160 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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- "Its presence in the tips of neurites of apparently non-migratory yet immature neurons suggest an additional role in neurite development . Mutation in the human DCX gene causes a characteristic defect in cortical layering, the name-giving doublecortex , . "
ABSTRACT: Essentially all knowledge about adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans still comes from one seminal study by Eriksson et al. in 1998, although several others have provided suggestive findings. But only little information has been available in how far the situation in animal models would reflect the conditions in the adult and aging human brain. We therefore here mapped numerous features associated with adult neurogenesis in rodents in samples from human hippocampus across the entire lifespan. Such data would not offer proof of adult neurogenesis in humans, because it is based on the assumption that humans and rodents share marker expression patterns in adult neurogenesis. Nevertheless, together the data provide valuable information at least about the presence of markers, for which a link to adult neurogenesis might more reasonably be assumed than for others, in the adult human brain and their change with increasing age. In rodents, doublecortin (DCX) is transiently expressed during adult neurogenesis and within the neurogenic niche of the dentate gyrus can serve as a valuable marker. We validated DCX as marker of granule cell development in fetal human tissue and used DCX expression as seed to examine the dentate gyrus for additional neurogenesis-associated features across the lifespan. We studied 54 individuals and detected DCX expression between birth and 100 years of age. Caveats for post-mortem analyses of human tissues apply but all samples were free of signs of ischemia and activated caspase-3. Fourteen markers related to adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents were assessed in DCX-positive cells. Total numbers of DCX expressing cells declined exponentially with increasing age, and co-expression of DCX with the other markers decreased. This argued against a non-specific re-appearance of immature markers in specimen from old brains. Early postnatally all 14 markers were co-expressed in DCX-positive cells. Until 30 to 40 years of age, for example, an overlap of DCX with Ki67, Mcm2, Sox2, Nestin, Prox1, PSA-NCAM, Calretinin, NeuN, and others was detected, and some key markers (Nestin, Sox2, Prox1) remained co-expressed into oldest age. Our data suggest that in the adult human hippocampus neurogenesis-associated features that have been identified in rodents show patterns, as well as qualitative and quantitative age-related changes, that are similar to the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents. Consequently, although further validation as well as the application of independent methodology (e.g. electron microscopy and cell culture work) is desirable, our data will help to devise the framework for specific research on cellular plasticity in the aging human hippocampus.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8809. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0008809 · 3.23 Impact Factor