Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation.
ABSTRACT Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.
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ABSTRACT: Caspases are the major executioners of cell death, serving as molecular guillotines to behead many proteins required for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Identification of caspase substrates has taken on increasing importance as we attempt to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the struggle between life and death. Many caspase substrates have been described and include RNA binding proteins such as La and U1-70 kD, structural proteins such as keratin and nuclear lamins, and transcription factors or their regulatory proteins that include IkappaB, SP1, and SREBP. Kinases and other signaling proteins are perfectly suited to regulate life and death decisions in response to cellular stressors and have only recently been identified as important caspase substrates. Here we review the current status of signaling pathways that are activated, inactivated or dysregulated by proteases such as caspases and calpain to control entry into apoptosis. The emerging concept that some caspase pathways may be inhibited by cellular and viral apoptosis inhibitory proteins while other caspase pathways are preserved suggests that a subset of these kinases may exist as cleaved 'isoforms' in cells that are not destined to perish. By acting as executioners and as important 'molecular sensors' of the degree of cellular injury, the signaling proteins described in this review are strong candidates to mediate downstream events, both in condemned and in viable cells.Cell Death and Differentiation 08/2000; 7(7):589-602. · 8.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic studies have revealed that Cbl-b plays a negative role in the antigen receptor-mediated proliferation of lymphocytes. However, we show that Cbl-b-deficient DT40 B cells display reduced phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma2 activation and Ca2+ mobilization upon B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation. In addition, the overexpression of Cbl-b in WEHI-231 mouse B cells resulted in the augmentation of BCR-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Cbl-b interacted with PLC-gamma2 and helped the association of PLC-gamma2 with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), as well as B cell linker protein (BLNK). Cbl-b was indispensable for Btk-dependent sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+. Both NH(2)-terminal tyrosine kinase-binding domain and COOH-terminal half region of Cbl-b were essential for its association with PLC-gamma2 and the regulation of Ca2+ mobilization. These results demonstrate that Cbl-b positively regulates BCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling, most likely by influencing the Btk/BLNK/PLC-gamma2 complex formation.Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2002; 196(1):51-63. · 13.85 Impact Factor