Effects of type of carbohydrate supplementation to lush pasture on microbial fermentation in continuous culture.
ABSTRACT Eight single-flow continuous culture fermenters were used to study the effects of the type of energy source on ruminal N utilization from high quality pasture. The four dietary treatments included high quality grass and legume pasture alone (50:50; wt/wt), pasture plus soybean hulls, pasture plus beet pulp, and pasture plus corn. Diets supplemented with additional sources of energy (soybean hulls, beet pulp, and corn) were isocaloric but differed in the type and rate of carbohydrate fermentation. Energy supplements constituted 45% of the total dietary dry matter and were fed twice daily at 12-h intervals in place of pasture, which is characteristic of grain feeding at milking when animals are in a grazing situation. Energy supplementation reduced pH, NH3 N flow, and NH3 N concentration and increased bacterial N flow (as a percentage of N intake). The supplementation of corn and soybean hulls resulted in the highest microbial N flow (as a percentage of N intake). Corn had a tendency to reduce fiber digestion because of excessively low NH3 N concentrations. Beet pulp was similar to corn in that it decreased NH3 N concentrations. Supplementation of soybean hulls resulted in a more synchronized fermentation, greater volatile fatty acid production, and greater fiber digestion. Nitrogen utilization by microbes was maximized by supplementation with soybean hulls or corn twice a day. With diets based on pasture, it may be more important to improve bacterial N flow and bacterial utilization of N than to maximize the efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis because better utilization of N by ruminal microorganisms results in higher bacterial N flow and higher fiber digestion.
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ABSTRACT: Six male crossbred (Thai NativeAnglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial weight of , were randomly assigned according to a factorial arrangement in a Latin square design with a 21-d period to evaluate the effect of feeding rubber seed kernel (RSK) and palm kernel cake (PKC) in combination on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization. The dietary treatments were as follows: i) concentrate containing 0% RSK and 20% PKC (), ii) 0% RSK and 30% PKC (), iii) 20% RSK and 20% PKC (), iv) 20% RSK and 30% PKC (), v) 30% RSK and 20% PKC (), and vi) 30% RSK and 30% PKC (). During the experiment, signal hay was given on an ad libitum basis as the roughage. It was found that RSK levels and PKC levels had no interaction effects on feed intake, apparent digestibility, -N, blood metabolites, VFA concentrations, and nitrogen utilization, but there were interactions between RSK levels and PKC levels with respect to total DMI (kg/d) and total VFA concentrations, and goats receiving 30% RSK had lower values (p0.05) feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation patterns, blood metabolites, and nitrogen utilization. However, increasing RSK levels (>20%) resulted in a slightly lower daily DMI (% BW and g/kg ), apparent digestibility (NDF and ADF), total N intake, and N excretion than in goats fed on 0 and 20% RSK. BUN, blood glucose, and propionate were variable among treatment and were highest in 0% RSK with the 20% PKC fed group having values which were higher than those in other groups. However, there were no differences (p>0.05) among treatments with respect to N retention, PD output, and microbial N supply. Based on this study, RSK levels up to 20% and PKC at 20-30% in concentrate could be efficiently utilized for goats fed on signal hay.Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 01/2011; 24(1). · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine effects of supplementation levels of aqueous direct-fed microbials (DFM; Bacillus spp.) to TMR(exp. 1.) and aqueous DFM addition under the various ratios of starch and cellulose(exp. 2.) on ruminal fermentation and fibrolytic enzyme activity. In experiment 1, ruminal fluids taken from rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were incubated during 24 hr by using TMR as substrates. Aqueous DFM was applied at a rate of 0, 0.025 and 0.05%, respectively. The pH of 0.025% treatment was not significantly different from that of control at 6 and 9 hr, but it was significantly lower (PJournal of Animal Science and Technology. 01/2005; 47(5).
- Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 08/2011; 40(8):1758-1766. · 0.56 Impact Factor