Clinical evaluation of commercially available urinary acidification diets in the management of idiopathic cystitis in cats.
ABSTRACT To compare recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) in cats with idiopathic cystitis that were fed the dry or canned formulation of a commercial diet designed to result in production of an acidic urine.
54 client-owned cats with idiopathic cystitis that was diagnosed on the basis of a history of abnormal micturition, abnormal results on urinalysis, radiography, or cystoscopy, and lack of an alternative diagnosis.
Cats were assigned to be fed the canned or dry formulation of the diet. Reevaluations conducted at 2 and 16 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months included a physical examination, CBC and serum biochemical analysis (except week 2), blood gas analysis, and urinalysis. Regular telephone contacts were also made. The study was discontinued after 12 months or if signs of LUTD recurred.
Signs of LUTD did not recur in 16 of 18 cats fed the canned diet, and 17 of 28 cats fed the dry diet (chi 2, P < 0.05). Seven cats were reevaluated at recurrence. Owners of remaining cats in which signs of LUTD recurred declined to have their pets reexamined. A different problem (bacterial urinary tract infection) was identified in only 1 cat on reevaluation. Eight cats were lost to follow-up evaluation.
Feeding this commercial canned urinary acidifying diet may reduce the proportion of cats with idiopathic cystitis that will have recurrence of signs of LUTD within a 12-month period.
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ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical investigations have confirmed the importance of dietary modifications in medical protocols designed to treat and prevent feline lower urinary tract signs (LUTS). The objective of this review is to discuss common medical conditions contributing to feline LUTS, and to present currently utilized and potential preventative dietary modifications. Feline LUTS are a set of clinical conditions with similar symptoms related to inappropriate urine elimination due to a combination of genetics, stress and frustration reactions, environment, and medical condition(s) (e.g., idiopathic cystitis, urolithiasis, urethral obstruction, and urinary tract infection). The main goals of dietary modifications to prevent LUTS are: 1) promote large dilute volumes of urine; 2) decrease the relative supersaturation of urine for specific stone types; and 3) promote healthy bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. The impact of dietary composition, including dietary moisture, protein concentration and digestibility, mineral concentrations (i.e., Na, Cl, Ca, P, and Mg), inclusion of acidifiers and alkalinizing agents, inclusion of vitamin B6, EPA, DHA, gamma-linolenic acid, fiber concentration and characteristics, and oxalate degrading probiotics, on these outcomes is discussed, and dietary guidelines for cats are provided. Because of the complex interaction of diet composition, environment, and animal physiology, there is a need for clinical research linking current recommendations or dietary options for the treatment and prevention of LUTS with physiological outcomes (i.e., decreased RSS and LUTS recurrence). Additionally, for many recommendations (e.g., probiotic administration, EPA, DHA), extrapolation from other species was necessary. Research is needed in feline patients with LUTS on these dietary components.Journal of Animal Science 02/2013; 91(6). DOI:10.2527/jas.2012-6035 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A telephone questionnaire was developed to collect information on diet, activity level, and health as part of a prior study examining long-term outcome of early-age vs. traditional-age gonadectomy in cats. The objectives of our current study were to measure the repeatability of the questionnaire through time, to describe changes in diet and activity level over a period of 1-2 years, and to determine whether current diet and activity level characteristics might influence owner ability to recall past information.A total of 100 previously interviewed cat owners completed the second administration of the telephone questionnaire. The interval between the first and second administration of the questionnaire ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 years (median=1.5 years). Owners answered multiple-choice questions related to activity level, appetite, body condition, diet type and brand (open-ended), frequency of feeding, indoor/outdoor status, and time spent outdoors. All variables measured in the questionnaire were analyzed using kappa and a 95% confidence interval. Agreement between the original and current interviews was poor for questions referring to activity level, appetite, body condition, type and brand of treats fed, and table scraps. Agreement was moderate for questions referring to brand of dry and canned foods fed, frequency of feeding, and time spent outdoors. Agreement was high for questions referring to whether dry and canned foods were fed and indoor/outdoor status. Change over time as assessed by kappa was moderate-to-high for all variables measured with the exception of whether dry diet was fed and indoor/outdoor status. Recall of all variables that changed appeared to be at least moderately influenced by current characteristics.Preventive Veterinary Medicine 10/2002; 55(2):79-94. DOI:10.1016/S0167-5877(02)00096-X · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Winn Feline Foundation www.winnfelinehealth.org ©2007 Feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) is a sterile, inflammatory process causing signs of lower urinary tract disease (LUTD). It affects 1.5% of cats presented to primary care veterinarians (Lund, Armstrong et al. 1999). It is the most common diagnosis for young cats with LUTD (the second most common being urolithiasis). FIC is important not only because of the pain and distress it causes patients, but also because it is highly associated with housesoiling, the leading cause of relinquishment of cats to shelters. FIC appears to be a modern disease, having first been mentioned in the early 1990s when it was discovered that no specific diagnosis could be made in over 50% of cats with LUTD (Kruger, Osborne et al. 1991). Diet and environment play important roles. Terminology can be confusing with this disease. "Interstitial cystitis" is a term best reserved for that subset of FIC patients with chronic or frequent signs and cystoscopic findings similar to humans with interstitial cystitis. FIC is a more generic, umbrella term for those cats with acute or chronic signs of LUTD where cystoscopy has not been performed or has not revealed changes associated with interstitial cystitis. Prevalence Approximately 60-70% of cats under 10 years of age with signs of LUTD have no specific cause, and are referred to as having FIC. In one study of 109 cats with signs of LUTD, 64% were determined to have FIC (Buffington, Chew et al. 1997). Urolithiasis affects about 10-20% of cats presenting with LUTD. Less than 2% of cats with LUTD signs have bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI). Cats with FIC are generally young to middle-aged when diagnosed; FIC is less likely as a new diagnosis in geriatric cats and other causes of LUTD should be pursued aggressively in this age group.