Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase in ram and stallion epididymal fluids: origin and regulation.
ABSTRACT Microsequencing after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a major protein, glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in the anterior epididymal region fluid of the ram and stallion. In this epididymal region, PGDS was a polymorphic compound with a molecular mass around 30 kDa and a range of pI from 4 to 7. PGDS represented 15% and 8% of the total luminal proteins present in this region in the ram and stallion, respectively. The secretion of the protein as judged by in vitro biosynthesis, and the presence of its mRNA as studied by Northern blot analysis, were limited to the proximal caput epididymidis. Using a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide, PGDS was found throughout the epididymis, decreasing in concentration toward the cauda region. PGDS was also detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma by Western blotting. Castration and efferent duct ligation in the ram led to a decrease in PGDS mRNA and secretion. PGDS mRNA was not detected in the stallion 1 mo after castration, and it was restored by testosterone supplementation. This study showed that PGDS is present in the environment of spermatozoa throughout the male genital tract. Its function in the maturation and/or protection of spermatozoa is unknown.
Article: Proteomic analysis of the reproductive tract fluids from tropically-adapted Santa Ines rams.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study is focused on the proteome of reproductive tract fluids from tropically-adapted Santa Ines rams. Seminal plasma, cauda epididymal (CEF) and vesicular gland fluid (VGF) proteins were analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Seminal plasma maps contained 302 ± 16 spots, within the 4-7 pH range. From these maps, 73 spots were identified, corresponding to 41 proteins. Ram Seminal Vesicle Proteins (RSVP) 14 and 22kDa and bodhesins 1 and 2 represented the most abundant seminal components. Other seminal proteins included clusterin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-2, tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase, albumin, lactoferrin, alpha enolase, peroxiredoxin, leucine aminopeptidase, β-galactosidase, among others. Later, seminal plasma gels were run within narrow pH intervals (3.9-5.1; 4.7-5.9; 5.5-6.7), allowing the additional identification of 21 proteins not detected in 4-7 pH maps. Major proteins of CEF and VGF were albumin and transferrin, and RSVPs, respectively. Western blots confirmed that RSVPs were mainly present in VGF while bodhesins, in VGF and CEF. Based on RT-PCR, RSVP and bodhesin genes were primarily expressed in the vesicular glands. In summary, the reproductive tract fluids of Brazilian hairy rams contain several categories of proteins, with potential roles in sperm protection, capacitation, acrosome reaction and sperm-oocyte interaction.Journal of proteomics 05/2012; 75(14):4436-56. · 5.07 Impact Factor
Article: Epididymal lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase: identification using mass spectrometry, messenger RNA localization, and immunodetection in mouse, rat, hamster, and monkey.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study identified prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in murine epididymal fluid using a proteomic approach combining two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS). The caudal epididymal fluid was collected by retroperfusion, and proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS analyses after trypsin digestion. The identification was based on the protein-specific peptide map as well as on sequence information generated by nano-electrospray ionization MS/MS. By in situ hybridization, the mRNA was detected in caput, corpus, and cauda, but it was not detected in the initial segment. The PGDS protein was mostly detected in the corpus and cauda by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody. In caudal fluid, PGDS was distributed among several isoforms (pI range, 6.5-8.8), suggesting that this protein undergoes posttranslational modification of its primary sequence. After N-glycanase digestion, the molecular mass decreased from 20-25 to 18.5 kDa, its theoretical mass. The PGDS was also detected in the epididymis of rat, hamster, and cynomolgus monkey from the caput to the cauda. In conclusion, MS is a powerful and accurate technique that allows unambiguous identification of the murine epididymal PGDS. The protein is 1) present throughout the epididymis, except in the initial segment, with an increasing luminal concentration from distal caput to cauda; 2) a major protein in caudal fluid; 3) an N-glycosylated, highly polymorphic protein; and 4) conserved during evolution.Biology of Reproduction 03/2002; 66(2):524-33. · 4.01 Impact Factor