Prevalence of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in commercial sex workers in a Peruvian Amazon city.

University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294-0006, USA.
Sex Transm Dis (Impact Factor: 2.84). 03/1999; 26(2):103-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Iquitos Peru, a densely populated port city housing both a large military base and a booming tourist industry, provides a thriving market for commercial sex and, consequently, sexually transmitted disease (STD). The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among commercial sex workers (CSWs) and to correlate those findings with social/behavioral characteristics.
One hundred CSWs, recruited through street and brothel outreach, were administered questionnaires. Urine specimens were collected for gonorrhea and chlamydia testing using ligase chain reaction assays.
Twenty-eight percent of CSWs were positive for chlamydia (22%) or gonorrhea (14%). Registered CSWs were more likely to have worked more than 5 years (p = 0.03), report 10 or more partners (p = 0.002), and work in brothels (p < 0.001). Significant associations were also noted between infection status and age, with adolescents at increased risk (odds ratio [OR] = 4.13, p = 0.001), and duration of employment, with those employed less than 5 years at increased risk (OR = 3.72, p = 0.04). The latter association, however, was because of age. Also, most CSWs believed themselves to be at no/small risk or didn't know their risk of future gonococcal infection (30%/12% and 25%, respectively) and AIDS (25%/8% and 35%, respectively), with 11% perceiving AIDS as more of a threat.
High infection rates, lack of knowledge regarding STD/HIV risk assessment, and other high-risk behavior prevalent among this population stress the need for STD intervention. The study further suggests that educational/risk assessment programs and risk reduction interventions could be successful.

3 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Iquitos, Peru, motorcycle taxis are a common form of public transportation used both by residents and visitors. To evaluate the prevalence of factors associated with sexually transmitted disease risk and of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among motorcycle taxi drivers working in Iquitos, Peru. A convenience sample of motorcycle taxi drivers was recruited through street outreach. Participants were confidentially interviewed and provided urine specimens for gonococcal and chlamydial infection testing. A history of sexually transmitted disease (62%) or symptoms in the past year (35%) and of referral of clients to commercial sex workers (60%) was common. The prevalence of gonococcal or chlamydial infection was 3.5%. Motorcycle taxi drivers are a major means of public transportation in Iquitos, Peru, have high personal risks for sexually transmitted disease, and interface often with at-risk persons.
    Sex Transm Dis 02/2001; 28(1):11-3. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), we screened 107 human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Peru, where the virus is predominantly sexually transmitted. Patients had multiple risk factors for STDs, and 38% of women and 50% of men had at least 1 STD (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, herpes simplex, anogenital warts, or syphilis seropositivity). No chlamydial infection was detected, even though infection rates in the general population are 5%-12%. Patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMZ) for prophylaxis or treatment of respiratory infections were least likely to have cervicitis and/or urethritis (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.89). Although not optimal treatment, administration of TMP-SMZ is effective against chlamydial infection. We speculate that the use of concomitant medications, such as TMP-SMZ, may be inadvertently preventing chlamydial infection in this population. Another finding was the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis in pharyngeal specimens of 3 men with histories of orogenital activity. This has not been previously reported and requires further study.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/2001; 32(5):808-14. DOI:10.1086/319202 · 8.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among women diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease, we examined the associations between hormonal or barrier methods of contraception and upper genital tract infection or inflammation. Participants were 563 patients from a treatment trial for pelvic inflammatory disease. All had pelvic pain; pelvic organ tenderness; and leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated cervicitis. Contraceptive use within the prior 4 weeks was compared among women with baseline upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, women with endometritis without upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, and women with neither upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia nor endometritis. Inconsistent condom use was significantly and independently associated with a 2 to 3 times elevated risk for upper genital tract infection. Upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia was not significantly associated with use of oral contraceptives, use of medroxyprogesterone, condoms used consistently, nor other barrier methods. No hormonal or barrier contraceptive method was related to a reduction in upper genital tract disease among women with clinical pelvic inflammatory diseases.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2001; 185(1):121-7. DOI:10.1067/mob.2001.115114 · 4.70 Impact Factor
Show more