Prevalence of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in commercial sex workers in a Peruvian Amazon city.
ABSTRACT Iquitos Peru, a densely populated port city housing both a large military base and a booming tourist industry, provides a thriving market for commercial sex and, consequently, sexually transmitted disease (STD). The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among commercial sex workers (CSWs) and to correlate those findings with social/behavioral characteristics.
One hundred CSWs, recruited through street and brothel outreach, were administered questionnaires. Urine specimens were collected for gonorrhea and chlamydia testing using ligase chain reaction assays.
Twenty-eight percent of CSWs were positive for chlamydia (22%) or gonorrhea (14%). Registered CSWs were more likely to have worked more than 5 years (p = 0.03), report 10 or more partners (p = 0.002), and work in brothels (p < 0.001). Significant associations were also noted between infection status and age, with adolescents at increased risk (odds ratio [OR] = 4.13, p = 0.001), and duration of employment, with those employed less than 5 years at increased risk (OR = 3.72, p = 0.04). The latter association, however, was because of age. Also, most CSWs believed themselves to be at no/small risk or didn't know their risk of future gonococcal infection (30%/12% and 25%, respectively) and AIDS (25%/8% and 35%, respectively), with 11% perceiving AIDS as more of a threat.
High infection rates, lack of knowledge regarding STD/HIV risk assessment, and other high-risk behavior prevalent among this population stress the need for STD intervention. The study further suggests that educational/risk assessment programs and risk reduction interventions could be successful.
- SourceAvailable from: Deborah Dean[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen causing a myriad of severe and debilitating diseases. While antibiotics have been a mainstay of treatment, there is increasing evidence for potential drug resistance, reinfection and persistent infections that require a reevaluation of treatment strategies. A critical need to address these issues will be a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic that can be used for global screening, treatment and test-of-cure of infected individuals instead of empirical therapy that not only drives drug resistance but is not costeffective. This type of diagnostic would allow clinicians and researchers to evaluate the true incidence and prevalence of chlamydial infections in both developed and developing countries. There are extremely limited data on chlamydial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in many developing countries, including those in Central and South America. In addition, advancing our understanding of chlamydial disease pathogenesis will require an evaluation of host genetic susceptibility to infection and sequelae. We provide preliminary data on rates of chlamydial STDs and host genetic factors that predispose to infection among adolescent pregnant and nonpregnant commercial sex worker populations residing in Quito, Ecuador.Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998) 11/2009; 45 Suppl B:25-31. · 1.00 Impact Factor
- 03/2007; UPCH y OPS., ISBN: 978-9972-222-14-6
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated -- sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. METHODS: HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. RESULTS: Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted) for prevention of mother to child transmission. CONCLUSION: The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country plans to amplify its response through new interventions partly funded by the GFATM.BMC Public Health 09/2009; 9:352. · 2.32 Impact Factor