Herpes in the time of AIDS: a comparison of the epidemiology of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in young men in northern Thailand.
ABSTRACT To compare the epidemiologic pattern of HIV-1, a recently introduced sexually transmitted disease (STD) agent in Thailand, with the pattern of HSV-2, a well-established STD agent, so that future trends for both viruses can be better understood.
We obtained questionnaire data and determined HSV-2 (by specific gG-2) and HIV-1 seroreactivity in a cohort of 1,115 young male army conscripts who entered service in northern Thailand in 1991.
Seroprevalence of HIV-1 and HSV-2 was 6.9% and 14.9%, respectively. For HSV-2-seropositive men who reported previous genital ulcers, HIV-1 seroprevalence was 32%. For most variables, there was a close correspondence between the prevalence ratios for HIV-1 and for HSV-2, except that prevalence ratios for HIV-1 tended to be greater than the corresponding ratios for HSV-2. The seroprevalence of both viruses was strongly related to early and frequent contact with female sex workers (FSWs), infrequent use of condoms with FSWs, and residence in the upper north region of Thailand. When differences in sexual behavior between the upper north and lower north were controlled for, the seroprevalence of both viruses still differed significantly by region.
Although the seroprevalence levels of HSV-2 and HIV-1 were quite different in this cohort of Thai army conscripts in 1991, the patterns of infection in terms of demographic, residential, and behavioral variables were similar. Seroprevalence studies of HSV-2 in other populations, particularly where the HIV-1 epidemic is just beginning, may be useful in predicting which subgroups might be most vulnerable to the epidemic and could therefore benefit the most from public health intervention. Where differences in the patterns of the two viruses have been noted, we hypothesize that the pattern for HIV-1 will evolve toward that seen for HSV-2.
SourceAvailable from: Mary L Kamb[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The degree of effectiveness of condom use in preventing the transmission of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a large pooled analysis. We identified prospective studies with individual-level condom use data and laboratory-defined HSV-2 acquisition. Six studies were identified through a review of publications through 2007: 3 candidate HSV-2 vaccine studies, an HSV-2 drug study, an observational sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence study, and a behavioral STI intervention study. Study investigators provided us individual-level data to perform a pooled analysis. Effect of condom use was modeled using a continuous percentage of sex acts during which a condom was used and, alternatively, using absolute numbers of unprotected sex acts. A total of 5384 HSV-2-negative people at baseline contributed 2 040 894 follow-up days; 415 persons acquired laboratory-documented HSV-2 during follow-up. Consistent condom users (used 100% of the time) had a 30% lower risk of HSV-2 acquisition compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.94) (P = .01). Risk for HSV-2 acquisition increased steadily and significantly with each unprotected sex act (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.25) (P < .001). Condom effectiveness did not vary by gender. To our knowledge, this is the largest analysis using prospective data to assess the effect of condom use in preventing HSV-2 acquisition. Although the magnitude of protection was not as large as has been observed with other STIs, we found that condoms offer moderate protection against HSV-2 acquisition in men and women.Archives of internal medicine 07/2009; 169(13):1233-40. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.177 · 13.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study assesses whether the observed declines in HIV prevalence since the beginning of the 'Avahan' India HIV/AIDS prevention initiative are consistent with self-reported increases in condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) in two districts of southern India, and provides estimates of the fraction of new infections averted among FSWs and clients due to increases in condom use in commercial sex after 2004. A deterministic compartmental model of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission incorporating heterogeneous sexual behaviour was developed, parameterised and fitted using data from two districts in Karnataka, India. Three hypotheses of condom use among FSWs were tested: (H(0)), that condom use increased in line with reported FSW survey data prior to the Avahan initiative but remained constant afterwards; (H(1)) that condom use increased following the Avahan initiative, in accordance with survey data; (H(2)) that condom use increased according to estimates derived from condom distribution data. The proportion of fits to HIV/STI prevalence data was examined to determine which hypothesis was most consistent. For Mysore 0/36/82.7 fits were identified per million parameter sets explored under hypothesis H(0)/H(1)/H(2), respectively, while for Belgaum 9.7/8.3/0 fits were identified. The HIV epidemics in Belgaum and Mysore are both declining. In Mysore, increases in condom use during commercial sex between 2004 and 2009 may have averted 31.2% to 47.4% of new HIV infections in FSWs, while in Belgaum it may have averted 24.8% to 43.2%, if there was an increase in condom use. Increased condom use following the Avahan intervention is likely to have played a role in curbing the HIV epidemic in Mysore. In Belgaum, given the limitations in available data, this method cannot be used alone to decide if there has been an increase in condom use.Sexually transmitted infections 02/2010; 86 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):i33-43. DOI:10.1136/sti.2009.038950 · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Because HIV is sexually transmitted, HIV infection is common in populations with high prevalences of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This epidemiologic coprevalence provides an opportunity for bidirectional influences. The presence of some other STDs increases the transmissibility of HIV and may, in some circumstances, actually affect the course of HIV disease through the stimulation of susceptible cell types. The presence of HIV increases susceptibility to some STDs and modifies the presentation, course, rate of complications, and response to therapy of some of these classic infections. Recent studies and reviews have further defined these interactions but have provided no startlingly new approaches.Current Infectious Disease Reports 03/2000; 2(1):87-95.