Iron intake, body iron stores and colorectal cancer risk in women: a nested case-control study.
ABSTRACT Accumulated evidence suggests that increased body iron stores may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, possibly via catalyzing oxidation reactions. We examined the relationship between iron status and colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested within the New York University Women's Health Study cohort. For 105 incident cases of colorectal cancer with an average follow-up of 4.7 years and 523 individually matched controls, baseline levels of serum iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation were determined as indicators of body iron stores, and total iron intake was assessed based on their diet and supplement intake. Overall, there were no associations between the risk of colorectal cancer and any of these indices except for serum ferritin, which showed a significant inverse association. When analyzed by subsite, there was an increasing trend in risk of cancer of the proximal colon with increasing total iron intake (p-value for trend = 0.04). In addition, a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer associated with higher total iron intake [odds ratio (OR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-5.87] was observed among subjects with higher intake of total fat. Our results do not support a role of increased body iron stores in the development of colorectal cancer, but suggest that luminal exposure to excessive iron may possibly increase the risk in combination with a high fat diet.
SourceAvailable from: Ai-Seon Kuan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by using a nationwide population-based data set. Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated. Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15). Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31), kidney (SIR: 2.23), liver (SIR: 1.94), and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74) remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis. The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk.PLoS ONE 10(3):e0119647. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119647 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract This community-based study was conducted to evaluate the effects of iron-fortified bread consumption on certain biomarkers of oxidative stress in an apparently healthy population. Evaluation of food intake, anthropometric and laboratory variables was performed in the beginning and after the 8-month intervention for all participants. There was no significant change in oxidative stress biomarkers in women following 8 months intervention. However, in men, final values of total antioxidant capacity, compared to the initial ones, showed a significant decrease in (p = 0.01) which was accompanied by a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (p = 0.002). It could be concluded that although the short-term period (8 months) of extra iron intake did not show severe effects of lipid per oxidation, significant changes of serum iron and some oxidative stress indices suggested that fortification of flour with iron among non-anemic adults in the long term was not without adverse effects.International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 03/2014; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2014.898254 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary iron intake and variation in iron homeostasis genes may affect colorectal neoplasia risk. We conducted two nested case-control studies within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial: one of advanced colorectal adenoma (1,205 cases; 1,387 controls), and one of colorectal cancer (370 cases; 401 controls). Iron intake was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire and genotyping was performed for 21 genes. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for colorectal neoplasia risk within quartiles of intake. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modified the association between iron intake and the risk of adenoma or cancer. Dietary iron was positively associated with colorectal adenoma among three SNPs of HEPHL1, including carriers of the AA genotype at rs7946162 (ORQ4-Q1 = 2.22, 95% CI 1.15-4.27, Ptrend = 0.03; Pinteraction = 0.10), the TT genotype at rs2460063 (ORQ4-Q1 = 2.39, 95% CI 1.26-4.54, Ptrend = 0.02; Pinteraction = 0.04), and the GG genotype at rs7127348 (ORQ4-Q1 = 2.40, 95% CI 1.23-4.67, Ptrend = 0.02; Pinteraction = 0.09). Heme iron was positively associated with colorectal cancer among those with GG genotypes for ACO1 rs10970985 (ORQ4-Q1= 2.45, 95% CI 3.40-8.06, Ptrend = 0.004; Pinteraction = 0.05). However, none of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Future studies should target the specific genes and SNPs for which the association was significant prior to multiple comparison correction.Carcinogenesis 02/2014; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgu028 · 5.27 Impact Factor