Increase in three alpha,beta-dicarbonyl compound levels in human uremic plasma: specific in vivo determination of intermediates in advanced Maillard reaction.
ABSTRACT Methylglyoxal (MGO), glypxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) are reactive alpha,beta-dicarbonyl intermediates in advanced Maillard reaction, which form advanced glycation and oxidation end products (AGEs) by reaction with both lysine and arginine residues in protein. We measured these three dicarbonyl compound levels in human plasma to estimate the relationship between accumulation of alpha, beta-dicarbonyl compounds and AGE formation reactions in uremia and diabetes in human plasma by a highly selective and specific assay, electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI/LC/MS). We show that 3-DG and MGO levels are significantly higher in uremia and diabetes compared with age-matched healthy controls. Only the GO level in uremic plasma is significantly higher compared to diabetes and healthy controls. In both diabetic and uremic patients, these dicarbonyl compounds promote AGE accumulation in vivo, and especially in uremic patients, increased accumulation of GO could result from accelerating oxidative stress.
- SourceAvailable from: Masanori Katakura[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and advanced glycation end products causes renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) increases the H2 level in blood and tissues, thus reducing oxidative stress in animals as well as humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of HRW on glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS generation in vitro and in vivo. Kidney homogenates from Wistar rats were incubated in vitro with glucose and α,β-dicarbonyl compounds containing HRW, following which ROS levels were measured. In vivo animal models of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats, were treated with HRW for 16 weeks, following which renal ROS production and plasma and renal α,β-dicarbonyl compound levels were measured by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. HRW inhibited glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS production in kidney homogenates from Wistar rats in vitro. Furthermore, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats treated with HRW showed a 34% decrease in ROS production. Moreover, their renal glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone levels decreased by 81%, 77%, and 60%, respectively. Positive correlations were found between renal ROS levels and renal glyoxal (r = 0.659, p = 0.008) and methylglyoxal (r = 0.782, p = 0.001) levels. These results indicate that HRW inhibits the production of α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and ROS in the kidneys of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential for renal dysfunction in patient with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.Medical gas research. 07/2012; 2(1):18.
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ABSTRACT: Novel 2,3-diaminopropionic acid-based molecules were synthesised and tested successfully as glyoxal/methylglyoxal scavengers and as AGE inhibitors. Addition of an 8-hydroxyquinoline moiety led to an increase of the overall activity. The compounds tested in this study were also proved to be efficient in trapping ALE precursor malondialdehyde.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 12/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human DJ-1 is a genetic cause of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), although its biochemical function is unknown. We report here that human DJ-1 and its homologs of the mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans are novel types of glyoxalase, converting glyoxal or methylglyoxal to glycolic or lactic acid, respectively, in the absence of glutathione. Purified DJ-1 proteins exhibit typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, which were abolished completely in the mutants of essential catalytic residues, consisting of cysteine and glutamic acid. The presence of DJ-1 protected mouse embryonic fibroblast and dopaminergically derived SH-SY5Y cells from treatments of glyoxals. Likewise, C. elegans lacking cDJR-1.1, a DJ-1 homolog expressed primarily in the intestine, protected worms from glyoxal-induced death. Sub-lethal doses of glyoxals caused significant degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in C. elegans lacking cDJR-1.2, another DJ-1 homolog expressed primarily in the head region, including neurons. Our findings that DJ-1 serves as scavengers for reactive carbonyl species may provide a new insight into the causation of PD.Human Molecular Genetics 04/2012; 21(14):3215-25. · 7.69 Impact Factor