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Cell Cycle-dependent Expression and Centrosome Localization of a Third Human Aurora/Ipl1-related Protein Kinase, AIK3

Department of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Gifu University, Gihu, Gifu, Japan
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 04/1999; 274(11):7334-40. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.274.11.7334
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ABSTRACT We earlier isolated cDNAs encoding novel human protein kinases AIK and AIK2 sharing high amino acid sequence identities with
Drosophila Aurora and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ipl1 kinases whose mutations cause abnormal chromosome segregation. In the present study, a third human cDNA (AIK3) highly homologous to aurora/IPL1 was isolated, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. This cDNA encodes 309 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass
of 35.9 kDa. C-terminal kinase domain of AIK3 protein shares high amino acid sequence identities with those of Aurora/Ipl1
family protein kinases including human AIK, human AIK2, Xenopus pEg2,Drosophila Aurora, and yeast Ipl1, whereas the N-terminal domain of AIK3 protein shares little homology with any other Aurora/Ipl1 family
members. AIK3 gene was assigned to human chromosome 19q13.43, which is a frequently deleted or rearranged region in several tumor tissues,
by fluorescence in situhybridization, somatic cell hybrid panel, and radiation hybrid cell panel. Northern blot analyses revealed that AIK3 expression was limited to testis. The expression levels of AIK3 in several cancer cell lines were elevated severalfold compared
with normal fibroblasts. In HeLa cells, the endogenous AIK3 protein level is low in G1/S, accumulates during G2/M, and reduces after mitosis. Immunofluorescence studies using a specific antibody have shown that AIK3 is localized to centrosome
during mitosis from anaphase to cytokinesis. These results suggest that AIK3 may play a role(s) in centrosome function at
later stages of mitosis.

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    • "At present, very little information is available about the role of Aurora-C in cancers. Despite Aurora-C is hardly detected in normal somatic cells, it is highly expressed in various tumor cell lines [66–69]. One study has described the transforming potential of overexpressed Aurora-C in NIH-3T3 cells and a correlation between the level of active kinase and tumor aggressiveness of the cells injected in nude mice [48]. "
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    • "In higher eukaryotes, centrosome-associated Aurora kinases are now generally termed Aurora A, to distinguish them from the Ipl1-related Aurora B kinases that are a component of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) [24]. A third mammalian Aurora paralogue, Aurora C [25], is functionally related to Aurora B [26,27] and thought to play a role in the meiotic cell cycle, but does not seem to be essential for cell divisions in somatic cells [28–30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The correct assembly and timely disassembly of the mitotic spindle is crucial for the propagation of the genome during cell division. Aurora kinases play a central role in orchestrating bipolar spindle establishment, chromosome alignment and segregation. In most eukaryotes, ranging from amoebas to humans, Aurora activity appears to be required both at the spindle pole and the kinetochore, and these activities are often split between two different Aurora paralogues, termed Aurora A and B. Polar and equatorial functions of Aurora kinases have generally been considered separately, with Aurora A being mostly involved in centrosome dynamics, whereas Aurora B coordinates kinetochore attachment and cytokinesis. However, double inactivation of both Aurora A and B results in a dramatic synergy that abolishes chromosome segregation. This suggests that these two activities jointly coordinate mitotic progression. Accordingly, recent evidence suggests that Aurora A and B work together in both spindle assembly in metaphase and disassembly in anaphase. Here, we provide an outlook on these shared functions of the Auroras, discuss the evolution of this family of mitotic kinases and speculate why Aurora kinase activity may be required at both ends of the spindle microtubules.
    Open Biology 03/2013; 3(3):120185. DOI:10.1098/rsob.120185 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Also, mouse males characterized by Aurkc gene disruption presented with 20% of the sperm cells with characteristic macrozoospermic large heads (Kimmins et al., 2007). Consistent with this phenotype, this kinase was shown to localize at the centrosome suggesting a role in cell division (Kimura et al., 1999). Interestingly, although the AURKC gene mutations are deleterious only in male patients, Aurora Kinase C is highly expressed in both male (Bernard et al., 1998) and female gonads (Yan et al., 2005). "
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