Hip bone trabecular architecture shows uniquely distinctive locomotor behaviour in South African australopithecines
ABSTRACT Cancellous bone retains structural and behavioural properties which are time and strain-rate dependent. As the orientation of the trabeculae (trajectories) follows the direction of the principal strains imposed by daily loadings, habitual postural and locomotor behaviours are responsible for a variety of trabecular architectures and site-specific textural arrangements of the pelvic cancellous network. With respect to the great ape condition, the human trabecular pattern is characterized by a distinctive ilioischial bundle, an undivided sacropubic bundle, and a full diagonal crossing (approximately 100 degrees) over the acetabulum between the ilioischial and the sacropubic bundles. Advanced digital image processing (DIP) of hip bone radiographs has revealed that adolescent and adult South African australopithecines retained an incompletely developed human-like trabecular pattern associated with gait-related features that are unique among the extant primates.
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ABSTRACT: Thanks to recent advances, computed tomography is now seen as a tool of great value in the field of physical anthropology. In this study, we focused on the posterior pelvis and the auricular surface and evaluated the accuracy of 3D reconstructions of the auricular surface, using a methodology derived from a previous study by Lovejoy et al. We also looked for trabecular bone criteria expressing age-related changes. Forty-six coxal bones were scanned, and scoring of macroscopic criteria showed a good agreement between 3D reconstructions and photographs, especially for transverse organization (k = 0.90). The changes occurring in the posterior part of the sacropubic trabecular bundle were evaluated on CT reconstruc-tions via three new criteria, which exhibited a good intra-and inter-observer agreement (k = 0.77–0.89), and were particularly useful in identifying older subjects. We concluded that these CT-evaluated trabecular bone criteria are promising and yield useful information about age at death.
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ABSTRACT: Identification of positional behavior adaptation in the pelvis of primates is complicated by possible confounding effects of body size and phylogeny. Previous work on primate pelvic allometry has focused primarily on sexual dimorphism and its relationship to obstetric constraints in species with large fetal size relative to maternal size. This study investigates patterns of pelvic scaling with a specific aim to understand how pelvic scaling relates to locomotor function. Patterns of scaling of nine pelvic dimensions were examined in a broad comparative sample of 40 species of primates, covering both haplorhines and strepsirrhines, while accounting for phylogenetic nonindependence. Phylogenetic reduced major axis regressions on pelvic scaling patterns suggest that primate-wide patterns are reflected in haplorhine- and strepsirrhine-specific analyses. Many measures scale isometrically with pelvis size, but notably, features of the ilium tend to scale allometrically. As predicted, ilium width and lower ilium cross-sectional area scale with positive allometry, while lower iliac height scales with negative allometry. Further regression analyses by locomotor group suggest that these ilium measures, as well as pubic symphysis and ischium lengths, differ in their scaling patterns according to locomotor mode. These results suggest that scaling differences within primates, when present, are related to functional differences in locomotor behavior and mechanics. This study supports recent work that identifies adaptations to locomotor loading in the ilium and highlights the need for a better understanding of the relationship between pelvic structural mechanics and the mechanical requirements of primate locomotion. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 02/2015; 156(4). DOI:10.1002/ajpa.22696 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of the human pelvis as a weight-bearing structure, there is a paucity of literature that discusses the development of the juvenile innominate from a biomechanical perspective. This study aims to add to the limited body of literature pertaining to this topic through the qualitative analysis of the gross architecture of the human ischium during the juvenile period. Macro-radiographs of 55 human ischia ranging from 28 intra-uterine weeks to 14 years of age were examined using intensity-gradient color mapping to highlight changes in gross structural morphology with increasing age. A clear pattern of maturation was observed in the juvenile ischium with increasing age. The acetabular component and ramus of the ischium consistently displayed low bone intensity in the postnatal skeletal material. Conversely the posterior body of the ischium, and in particular the ischial spine and lesser sciatic notch, exhibited increasing bone intensity which first arose at 1–2 years of age and became more expansive in older cohorts. The intensity patterns observed within the developing juvenile ischium are indicative of the potential factors influencing the maturation of this skeletal element. While the low intensity acetabular fossa indicates a lack of significant biomechanical interactions, the posterior increase in bone intensity may be related to the load-bearing nature of the posterior ischium. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 03/2014; DOI:10.1002/ca.22391 · 1.16 Impact Factor