The authors present a case of Hallervorden-Spatz disease (HSD) in a 10-year-old boy treated with stereotactic pallidotomy for control of severe dystonia. Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare type of neuraxonal dystrophy that can be familial or sporadic. This is the first case of HSD reported in the literature in which a pallidotomy was performed. The patient had progressively worsening dystonias and spasms that prevented useful function of his entire right side and eventually threatened his respiratory ability. Pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance images are presented along with electrophysiological recordings made in the globus pallidus at the time of surgery. Functional improvement in the use of the patient's limbs and relief from the painful dystonia were observed. Stereotactic pallidotomy should be considered as a potential treatment in the management of HSD.
"Iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine and administration of vitamin B 5 have been attempted without evidence of benefit . Oral or intrathecal baclofen and stereotactic pallidotomy may provide symptomatic relief but have no known disease-modifying effects  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron participates in a wide array of cellular functions and is essential for normal neural development and physiology. However, if inappropriately managed, the transition metal is capable of generating neurotoxic reactive oxygen species. A number of hereditary conditions perturb body iron homeostasis and some, collectively referred to as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), promote pathological deposition of the metal predominantly or exclusively within the central nervous system (CNS). In this article, we discuss seven NBIA disorders with emphasis on the clinical syndromes and neuroimaging. The latter primarily entails magnetic resonance scanning using iron-sensitive sequences. The conditions considered are Friedreich ataxia (FA), pantothenate kinase 2-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN), FA2H-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN), Kufor-Rakeb disease (KRD), aceruloplasminemia, and neuroferritinopathy. An approach to differential diagnosis and the status of iron chelation therapy for several of these entities are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease.
"Several cases have been published in which there has been improvement in dystonia associated with NBIA after bilateral thalamotomy (Tsukamoto et al., 1992) as well as unilateral (Justesen et al., 1999) or bilateral pallidotomy (Kyriagis et al., 2004; Balas et al., 2006). However, since stereotactic lesioning is an irreversible procedure, its use in children and adolescents raises several concerns (especially for bilateral procedures, which have higher risk of severe side effects). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation encompasses a heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by iron accumulation in the brain. Severe generalized dystonia is frequently a prominent symptom and can be very disabling, causing gait impairment, difficulty with speech and swallowing, pain and respiratory distress. Several case reports and one case series have been published concerning therapeutic outcome of pallidal deep brain stimulation in dystonia caused by neurodegeneration with brain iron degeneration, reporting mostly favourable outcomes. However, with case studies, there may be a reporting bias towards favourable outcome. Thus, we undertook this multi-centre retrospective study to gather worldwide experiences with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. A total of 16 centres contributed 23 patients with confirmed neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation and bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation. Patient details including gender, age at onset, age at operation, genetic status, magnetic resonance imaging status, history and clinical findings were requested. Data on severity of dystonia (Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-Motor Scale, Barry Albright Dystonia Scale), disability (Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-Disability Scale), quality of life (subjective global rating from 1 to 10 obtained retrospectively from patient and caregiver) as well as data on supportive therapy, concurrent pharmacotherapy, stimulation settings, adverse events and side effects were collected. Data were collected once preoperatively and at 2-6 and 9-15 months postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was change in severity of dystonia. The mean improvement in severity of dystonia was 28.5% at 2-6 months and 25.7% at 9-15 months. At 9-15 months postoperatively, 66.7% of patients showed an improvement of 20% or more in severity of dystonia, and 31.3% showed an improvement of 20% or more in disability. Global quality of life ratings showed a median improvement of 83.3% at 9-15 months. Severity of dystonia preoperatively and disease duration predicted improvement in severity of dystonia at 2-6 months; this failed to reach significance at 9-15 months. The study confirms that dystonia in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation improves with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation, although this improvement is not as great as the benefit reported in patients with primary generalized dystonias or some other secondary dystonias. The patients with more severe dystonia seem to benefit more. A well-controlled, multi-centre prospective study is necessary to enable evidence-based therapeutic decisions and better predict therapeutic outcomes.
"This trend has developed because pallidal surgery is so effective in levodopa-induced dystonic dyskinesias and ÔoffÕ period dystonic symptoms in Parkinsonian patients (Lozano et al., 1995; Jankovic et al., 1999a,b; Loher et al., 2000). Encouraging results from pallidotomy have also been reported for clinically and aetiologically varying forms of dystonia (Lin et al., 1999; Justesen et al., 1999; Cubo et al., 2000). The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as treatment for a number of different movement disorders could soon see it as the standard surgical treatment for dystonia resistant to medical therapy; bilateral pallidal DBS is probably optimal. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the current era of functional surgery for movement disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is emerging as the favoured intervention for patients with dystonia. Here we report our results in 20 patients with medically intractable dystonia treated with GPi stimulation. The series comprised 14 patients with generalized dystonia and six with spasmodic torticollis. Although comparisons were limited by differences in their respective neurological rating scales, chronic DBS clearly benefited both patient groups. Data conveying the rate of change in neurological function following intervention are also presented, demonstrating the gradual but progressive and sustained nature of improvement following stimulation of the GPi in dystonic patients.
European Journal of Neurology 06/2003; 10(3):239-47. DOI:10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00592.x · 4.06 Impact Factor
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