Utilization of human blood and sugar as nutrients by female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
ABSTRACT We examined the utilization of sugar and human blood as nutrient sources for small and large female Aedes aegypti (L.) when they were fed blood 2 or 5 d after emergence. Laboratory-reared mosquitoes were fed human blood alone or sugar plus human blood and assayed at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after the blood meal. Starved and well-fed mosquitoes were obtained by holding teneral females (< or = 1 d old) with 0, 5, 10, and 15% sucrose solutions ad libidum from emergence. Both small and large mosquitoes increased their glycogen and sugar levels significantly by feeding on blood only or on blood plus sugar when they imbibed a human blood meal on day 2 after emergence. Mosquitoes only fed blood on day 2 had the highest lipid levels of any treatment group. Both size classes and all feeding regimes failed to increase the total amount of glycogen, lipid, or sugar when they fed on blood 5 d after emergence. We conclude that there is an energetic advantage to Ae. aegypti when they feed on blood early in adult life (< or = day 2 after emergence).
Article: Longitudinal Studies of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand and Puerto Rico: Blood Feeding Frequency[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We used a histologic technique to study multiple blood feeding in a single gonotrophic cycle by engorged Aedes aegypti (L.) that were collected weekly for 2 yr from houses in a rural village in Thailand (n = 1,891) and a residential section of San Juan, Puerto Rico (n = 1,675). Overall, mosquitoes from Thailand contained significantly more multiple meals (n = 1,300, 42% double meals, 5% triple meals) than mosquitoes collected in Puerto Rico (n = 1,156, 32% double meals, 2% triple meals). The portion of specimens for which frequency of feeding could not be determined was 31% at both sites. We estimated that on average Ae. aegypti take 0.76 and 0.63 human blood meals per day in Thailand and Puerto Rico, respectively. However, frequency of multiple feeding varied among houses and, in Puerto Rico, the neighborhoods from which mosquitoes were collected. In Thailand 65% of the mosquitoes fed twice on the same day, whereas in Puerto Rico 57% took multiple meals separated by ≥ 1 d. At both sites, the majority of engorged specimens were collected inside houses (Thailand 86%, Puerto Rico 95%). The number of blood meals detected was independent of where mosquitoes were collected (inside versus outside of the house) at both sites and the time of day collections were made in Puerto Rico. Feeding rates were slightly higher for mosquitoes collected in the afternoon in Thailand. Temperatures were significantly higher and mosquitoes significantly smaller in Thailand than in Puerto Rico. At both sites female size was negatively associated with temperature. Rates of multiple feeding were associated positively with temperature and negatively with mosquito size in Thailand, but not in Puerto Rico. Multiple feeding during a single gonotrophic cycle is a regular part of Ae. aegypti biology, can vary geographically and under different climate conditions, and may be associated with variation in patterns of dengue virus transmission.Journal of Medical Entomology 12/1999; 37(1):89-101. · 1.76 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of Partial Sugar Deprivation on Lifespan and Carbohydrate Mobilization in the Parasitoid Macrocentrus grandii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We compared the lifespan of Macrocentrus grandii (Goidanich) adults fed a 50% sucrose solution at various intervals throughout their lives. Treatments included starvation, continuous feeding, feeding on the first day of life only, and feeding every second, third, or fourth day of life. Life expectancy for starved males and females was less than 3 d, and providing sugar during the first day of life increased life expectancy by 2 d for males and 4 d for females. Life expectancy was highest when adults were fed continuously (14 d for males and 21 d for females) or every 2 d (17 d for males and 23 d for females). The life expectancy of adults that were fed either every 3 or every 4 d ranged between 9 and 16 d. Together, these results demonstrate that a constant supply of sugars is not necessary to achieve maximum survivorship, and limited sugar availability may suffice to increase substantially the lifespan of M. grandii over starvation values. A series of anthrone tests was used to determine levels of gut sugars, simple storage sugars (‘body sugars’; primarily trehalose), and glycogen over the first 6 d of life of female and male M. grandii that were either fed 50% sucrose continuously, the first day of life only, or not at all. A single day of sugar feeding led to apparently maximum levels of gut sugars, body sugars, and glycogen, and parasitoids fed only on the first day of life maintained high levels of these nutrients for 1 d postfeeding. After this time, glycogen and gut sugars decreased substantially, but body sugar levels remained essentially constant. This pattern suggests a strategy in which gut sugars and glycogen are mobilized to maintain high levels of body sugars in starving parasitoids.Annals of the Entomological Society of America 01/2009; · 1.32 Impact Factor