Mental health services in schools: utilization, effectiveness, and consent.
ABSTRACT The integration of education and behavioral health services in schools continues to evolve at a rapid pace. Proponents argue that school-based behavioral health programs have many benefits, including greater access to care and improved effectiveness as compared to clinic- or hospital-based services. While preliminary research is encouraging, in general the claims of school behavioral health are not supported by data. Some critics focus on negative aspects of school behavioral health. They claim that behavioral health is being forced upon students and can cite many examples of counseling and treatment administered to children without parental consent. Utilization, effectiveness, and consent are three topics that deserve a great deal of attention in this emerging field, and are the focus of this review.
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ABSTRACT: Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children.The Lancet Psychiatry 10/2014; 1(5):377–387.
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ABSTRACT: This article reviews recent trends, developments and empirical support for the expansion of psychological practice to include school-based treatment and management of serious and chronic medical conditions, including somatization, in collaboration with primary health care providers. Trends and developments reviewed include (a) the expansion and integration of health, mental health, social and community services in schools, (b) the rapid growth of school-based health centers (SBHCs), (c) psychology’s increased involvement in the collaborative treatment of chronic and serious medical disorders, (d) recent federal and state legislative initiatives, and (e) cost-driven marketplace changes. Lack of empirical data specific to collaborative psychologist–health care provider collaboration in schools and SBHCs, particularly around somatization, is discussed. Ethical and legal, professional, and reimbursement issues that must be addressed if psychologists are to practice in this emergent arena are identified. This article calls for research to document both the clinical effectiveness and cost-efficacy of collaborative psychologist–primary care provider intervention in schools and SBHCs.Clinical Psychology Review 01/1999; 19(2). DOI:10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00073-7 · 7.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research for effective psychological interventions for refugee and asylum-seeking children has intensified. The need for interventions in environments more easily accessed by children and families is especially relevant for newly arrived populations. This paper reviews the literature on school and community-based interventions aimed at reducing psychological disorders in refugee and asylum-seeking children. Comprehensive searches were conducted in seven databases and further information was obtained through searching reference lists, grey literature, and contacting experts in the field. Studies were included if they reported on the efficacy of a school or community-based mental health intervention for refugee or asylum-seeking children. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively. The marked heterogeneity of studies excluded conducting a meta-analysis but study effect-sizes were calculated where possible. Twenty one studies met inclusion criteria for the review reporting on interventions for approximately 1800 refugee children. Fourteen studies were carried out in high-income countries in either a school (n = 11) or community (n = 3) setting and seven studies were carried out in refugee camps. Interventions were either primarily focused on the verbal processing of past experiences (n = 9), or on an array of creative art techniques (n = 7) and others used a combination of these interventions (n = 5). While both intervention types reported significant changes in symptomatology, effect sizes ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 and could mainly be calculated for interventions focusing on the verbal processing of past experiences. Only a small number of studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and the majority of these were in the school setting. The findings suggest that interventions delivered within the school setting can be successful in helping children overcome difficulties associated with forced migration.PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89359. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089359 · 3.53 Impact Factor