The Sox10(Dom) mouse: modeling the genetic variation of Waardenburg-Shah (WS4) syndrome.

Genetic Disease Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4472 USA.
Genome Research (Impact Factor: 13.85). 04/1999; 9(3):215-25.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a multigenic neurocristopathy clinically recognized by aganglionosis of the distal gastrointestinal tract. Patients presenting with aganglionosis in association with hypopigmentation are classified as Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (Waardenburg-Shah, WS4). Variability in the disease phenotype of WS4 patients with equivalent mutations suggests the influence of genetic modifier loci in this disorder. Sox10(Dom)/+ mice exhibit variability of aganglionosis and hypopigmentation influenced by genetic background similar to that observed in WS4 patients. We have constructed Sox10(Dom)/+ congenic lines to segregate loci that modify the neural crest defects in these mice. Consistent with previous studies, increased lethality of Sox10(Dom)/+ animals resulted from a C57BL/6J locus(i). However, we also observed an increase in hypopigmentation in conjunction with a C3HeB/FeJLe-a/a locus(i). Linkage analysis localized a hypopigmentation modifier of the Dom phenotype to mouse chromosome 10 in close proximity to a previously reported modifier of hypopigmentation for the endothelin receptor B mouse model of WS4. To evaluate further the role of SOX10 in development and disease, we have performed comparative genomic analyses. An essential role for this gene in neural crest development is supported by zoo blot hybridizations that reveal extensive conservation throughout vertebrate evolution and by similar Northern blot expression profiles between mouse and man. Comparative sequence analysis of the mouse and human SOX10 gene have defined the exon-intron boundaries of SOX10 and facilitated mutation analysis leading to the identification of two new SOX10 mutations in individuals with WS4. Structural analysis of the HMG DNA-binding domain was performed to evaluate the effect of human mutations in this region.

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    ABSTRACT: Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4) is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by auditory-pigmentary abnormalities and Hirschsprung disease. Mutations of the EDNRB gene, EDN3 gene, or SOX10 gene are responsible for WS4. In the present study, we reported a case of a Chinese patient with clinical features of WS4. In addition, the three genes mentioned above were sequenced in order to identify whether mutations are responsible for the case. We revealed a novel nonsense mutation, c.1063C>T (p.Q355*), in the last coding exon of SOX10. The same mutation was not found in three unaffected family members or 100 unrelated controls. Then, the function and mechanism of the mutation were investigated in vitro. We found both wild-type (WT) and mutant SOX10 p.Q355* were detected at the expected size and their expression levels are equivalent. The mutant protein also localized in the nucleus and retained the DNA-binding activity as WT counterpart; however, it lost its transactivation capability on the MITF promoter and acted as a dominant-negative repressor impairing function of the WT SOX10.
    Gene 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2014.01.026 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shah-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a neurocristopathy characterized by the association of deafness, depigmentation and Hirschsprung disease. Three disease-causing genes have been identified so far for WS4: EDNRB, EDN3, and SOX10. SOX10 mutations, found in 45-55% of WS4 patients, are inherited in autosomal dominant way. In addition, mutations in SOX10 are also responsible for an extended syndrome involving peripheral and central neurological phenotypes, referred to as PCWH (peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leucodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, Hirschsprung disease). Such mutations are mostly private, and a high intra- and inter-familial variability exists. In this report, we present a patient with WS4 and a second with PCWH due to SOX10 mutations supporting again the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of these syndromes. Interestingly, the WS4 family carries an insertion of 19 nucleotides in exon 5 of SOX10, which results in distinct phenotypes along three different generations: hypopigmentation in the maternal grandmother, hearing loss in the mother, and WS4 in the proband. Since mosaicism cannot explain the three different related-WS features observed in this family, we propose as the most plausible explanation the existence of additional molecular events, acting in an additive or multiplicative fashion, in genes or regulatory regions unidentified so far. On the other hand, the PCWH case was due to a de novo deletion in exon 5 of the gene. Efforts should be devoted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the intrafamilial phenotypic variability observed in the families affected, and to identify new genes responsible for the still unsolved WS4 cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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