Clearance of iopromide during haemodialysis with high- and low-flux membranes.
ABSTRACT The present clinical trial addressed the clearance of the contrast medium iopromide, a middle-sized molecule, during dialysis with high- and low-flux membranes.
Twenty chronic haemodialysis patients without residual renal function were dialysed either with low-flux haemophan or high-flux polyamide directly after application of the contrast medium. Iodine concentrations were determined by radiofluorescence methods.
Plasma concentrations of iodine before dialysis ranged between 1.1 and 3.9 mg/ml. The mean clearance rates for both membranes were comparable (110+/-1.4 ml/min high-flux and 108+/-1.9 ml/min low-flux), the sieving-coefficient was 0.83 for both membranes. After three hours of dialysis, 58% (high-flux) and 62% (low-flux) of iopromide was removed, half time of elimination was reached after 140+/-16 min (high-flux) and 122+/-11 min (low-flux).
Our results demonstrated that elimination of iopromide is not dependent on the pore size of the membrane during dialysis. Due to higher blood flow rate, we found a higher elimination rate and a reduced half-time of elimination than prior investigations.
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Chapter: Dialysis and Contrast Media[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Contrast media-induced nephropathy remains an important cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. Pre-existing renal impairment, especially diabetic nephropathy and the dose of the contrast medium are major risk factors in the development of contrast nephropathy ( Morcos et al. 1999; Morcos 1998, 2004). It is generally agreed that if contrast medium injection is clinically necessary prophylactic measures should be used to reduce the risk ( Morcos et al. 2002). Prophylactic hemodialysis has been proposed to prevent contrast nephrotoxicity in patients with renal impairment, but has not obtained general acceptance. In addition, there is misunderstanding about whether intravascular contrast medium injection in patients on dialysis should be scheduled in relation to the time of the hemodialysis session ( Morcos et al. 2002). In this chapter, the use of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the elimination of water-soluble, iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with end-stage renal disease and the value of hemodialysis in preventing contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity in patients with pre-existing renal impairment will be discussed.12/2008: pages 81-85;
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ABSTRACT: Contrast media are excreted mainly by glomerular filtration. There is thus, a significant correlation between both body and renal clearances of contrast media and glomerular filtration rate, and their renal excretion will be delayed in patients with renal insufficiency. Contrast media can be efficiently removed from blood by hemodialysis (HD). Since most contrast media are middle-sized molecules, the main factors potentially influencing their removal by HD are blood flow, membrane surface area, molecular size, transmembrane pressure, and dialysis time. Peritoneal dialysis is also effective in removing contrast agents from the body but takes longer than HD. Dialysis immediately after radiographic contrast studies has been suggested for two groups of patients. Those on chronic HD and those at very high risk for contrast nephropathy. Three studies have examined the necessity of immediate dialysis after intravascular injection of contrast media in chronic HD patients; the authors found no evidence that it is effective at preventing contrast nephropathy. The reasons why HD treatment was not beneficial in those three studies are not known. Perhaps, the rapid onset of renal injury after administration of contrast media is one answer. It is also possible that HD per se was nephrotoxic and might have offset the beneficial effect of the removal of contrast media. Marenzi et al. randomized 114 consecutive patients with chronic renal failure undergoing coronary interventions to either hemofiltration in an intensive care unit or isotonic saline hydration. The authors concluded that periprocedural hemofiltration given in an intensive care unit setting appears to be effective in preventing the deterioration of renal function due to contrast agent induced nephropathy and is associated with improved in-hospital and long term outcomes. The concentration of contrast media can effectively be reduced by HD and peritoneal dialysis. HD does not offer any protection against contrast media induced nephrotoxicity. Hemofiltration may decrease the risk of contrast induced nephropathy and have some long-term benefits, but additional studies are needed to better define the appropriate population for this treatment.Kidney international. Supplement 05/2006;
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ABSTRACT: The short- and long-term effects of prophylactic hemodialysis (HD) immediately after cardiovascular catheterizations on renal function in patients with severe baseline renal insufficiency remain unknown though previous studies reported non-beneficial very-short-term effect in less severe patients. Patients who had pre-procedural serum creatinine (Scr) between 2.5 and 5.5 mg/dl were retrospectively studied. Twenty of them (14 M/6 F, aged 69 +/- 2 years) had received prophylactic HD after radiocontrast exposure and constituted the HD group. Another 20 patients were case-matched to the baseline demographics of the HD group and served as the non-HD group. The baseline Scr were 3.9 +/- 0.2 and 3.5 +/-0.2 mg/dl, respectively (p = NS). Although the Scr at 3 months was significantly higher in the HD group (4.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, p = 0.02), the absolute and percentage increments from baseline to 3 months (0.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.0 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, p = NS, and 11 +/- 5% vs. 1 +/- 7%, p = NS, respectively) and 6 months (0.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, p = NS, and 18 +/- 8% vs. 8 +/- 10%, p = NS, respectively) were not statistically different. Patients who developed end-stage renal disease requiring permanent HD at 1 year were also similar in both groups (four vs. three, respectively, p = NS). Our study confirmed that prophylactic HD immediately after contrast media administration in catheterizations failed to affect the short- and long-term renal and clinical outcomes even in patients with severe baseline renal insufficiency.International Journal of Cardiology 07/2005; 101(3):407-13. · 5.51 Impact Factor