Long-term prognosis of bipolar I disorder.
ABSTRACT This study examined the contribution of demographic, syndromal and longitudinal course variables to the long-term prognosis of 165 bipolar patients prospectively observed over 10 years as part of the National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Study of Depression. Although most baseline clinical and demographic variables were not strong prognostic indicators, switching polarity within episodes was. Most episodes among the poor-prognosis patients were polyphasic, while most episodes among the comparison group with a better prognosis were monophasic. There was no evidence of shortening of cycle lengths over follow-up for either the poor-prognosis group or the entire sample. The relevance of these findings to the 'kindling' model is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous hypotheses have been put forth over the years to explain the development of bipolar disorder. Of these, circadian rhythm hypotheses have gained much importance of late. While the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivation hypothesis and the monoamine hypothesis somewhat explain the pathogenic mechanism of depression, they do not provide an explanation for the development of mania/hypomania. Interestingly, all patients with bipolar disorder display significant disruption of circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycles throughout their mood cycles. Indeed, mice carrying the Clock gene mutation exhibit an overall behavioral profile that is similar to human mania, including hyperactivity, decreased sleep, lowered depression-like behavior, and lower anxiety. It was recently reported that monoamine signaling is in fact regulated by the circadian system. Thus, circadian rhythm instability, imposed on the dysregulation of HPA axis and monoamine system, may in turn increase individual susceptibility for switching from depression to mania/hypomania. In addition to addressing the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the manic switch, circadian rhythm hypotheses can explain other bipolar disorder-related phenomena such as treatment resistant depression and mixed features.Psychiatry investigation 09/2013; 10(3):225-232. DOI:10.4306/pi.2013.10.3.225 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Prospective studies have shown that the course of bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by the persistence of symptoms, predominantly depression, along most of the time. However, to our knowledge, no studies in Latin America have investigated it. OBJECTIVES: To replicate international studies using a Brazilian sample to prospectively analyze treatment outcomes in the first year and to determine potential chronicity factors. METHODS: We followed up 102 patients with BD for 12 months and evaluated the number of months with affective episodes and the intensity of manic and depressive symptoms using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17). Sociodemographic and retrospective clinical data were examined to determine possible predictors of outcome. RESULTS: Almost 50% of the patients had symptoms about half of the time, and there was a predominance of depressive episodes. Disease duration and number of depressive episodes were predictors of chronicity. Depressive polarity of the first episode and a higher number of depressive episodes predicted the occurrence of new depressive episodes. CONCLUSION: In general, BD outcome seems to be poor in the first year of monitoring, despite adequate treatment. There is a predominance of depressive symptoms, and previous depressive episodes are a predictor of new depressive episodes and worse outcome.12/2013; DOI:10.1590/2237-6089-2012-0048
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ABSTRACT: THE long-term course of bipolar disorder is typified by recurring mood episodes of opposite polarity as well as mixed states. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder refers to the presence of at least 4 mood episodes in the previous 12 months that meet the criteria for manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data regarding prevalence, clinical correlates, and familial/genetic aspects related to rapid cycling in bipolar disorder.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 06/2014; 75(6):e578-e586. DOI:10.4088/JCP.13r08905 · 5.14 Impact Factor