Particle-mediated gene transfer of PDGF isoforms promotes wound repair.
ABSTRACT Several techniques for cutaneous gene transfer have been investigated for either in vitro or in vivo applications. In the present study, we investigated whether the direct delivery of platelet-derived growth factor cDNA into skin results in improvement in tissue repair. Cutaneous transfections were carried out in rats using a particle-bombardment device (Accell). As revealed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, transgene expression in vivo was transient, with low level expression by day 5. When compared with wounds transfected with a control cytomegalovirus-luciferase plasmid, wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor A or B in the MFG vector showed a significant increase in wound tensile strength 7 and 14 d after transfection. At both time points platelet-derived growth factor A transfected wounds exhibited the highest increase in tensile strength over controls, resulting in a 3.5-fold increase at day 7 and a 1.5-fold increase at day 14. The degree of stimulation was not remarkably different between wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor B, which is predominantly cell associated, or a truncation mutant, platelet-derived growth factor B211, which is predominantly secreted. These findings demonstrate that in vivo gene transfer by particle bombardment can be used to improve the tissue repair response. This approach provides a robust tool to assess the biologic activity of various proteins and will aid in the development of therapeutic cutaneous gene delivery.
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ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) chimeras were used to map a domain responsible for either efficient secretion of PDGF-A or the tight cell association of PDGF-B to their carboxy-terminal domains. Introduction of stop codons within PDGF-A or PDGF-B further dissected their respective carboxy-terminal domains. Although successive deletions of the PDGF-A carboxyl terminus did not impair its secretion, incremental deletions from the carboxyl terminus of PDGF-B abrogated its membrane retention properties and promoted secretion. By this approach, PDGF-B retention properties could be localized to PDGF-B residues 212-226. A processed form of PDGF-B, which contained this domain, was expressed at the cell surface but not released. Comparison of PDGF-B with PDGF-A revealed an analogous sequence located at the PDGF-A carboxyl terminus. We demonstrated that this PDGF-A domain also acts as a retention sequence under conditions that inhibit its proteolytic cleavage. Thus, differences in PDGF-A and PDGF-B secretion relate to differential proteolytic processing of analogous retention domains. All of these findings establish a new mechanism for stable growth factor presentation at the cell surface.Genes & Development 08/1991; 5(7):1191-9. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A recombinant retroviral vector (MFG-GC) was used to study the efficiency of transduction of the human gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GC; D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine glucohydrolase, EC 220.127.116.11), in mouse hematopoietic stem cells and expression in their progeny. Transfer of the GC gene to CFU-S (spleen cell colony-forming units) in primary and secondary recipients was virtually 100%. In mice 4-7 months after transplantation, highly efficient transfer of the human gene to bone marrow cells capable of long-term reconstitution was confirmed by detection of one or two copies per mouse genome in hematopoietic tissues and in cultures of pure macrophages. Expression of the human gene exceeded endogenous activity by several fold in primary and secondary CFU-S, tissues from long-term reconstituted mice, and explanted macrophages cultures. These studies are evidence of the feasibility of efficient transfer of the GC gene to hematopoietic stem cells and expression in their progeny for many months after reconstitution. The results of this study strengthen the rationale for gene therapy as a treatment for Gaucher disease.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1993; 89(23):11332-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some human chronic dermal wounds treated with recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rPDGF-BB) show increased healing coupled with fibroblast activation and granulation tissue formation. To determine whether endogenous PDGF is associated with healing and nonhealing dermal ulcer phenotypes, we developed monoclonal antibodies capable of recognizing the three isoforms of PDGF, AA, AB, and BB dimers, and capable of discriminating between two alternatively spliced A chain transcripts. We detected little PDGF isoform expression in normal skin and in nonhealing dermal ulcers. In contrast, in surgically created acute wounds and chronic ulcers treated with rPDGF-BB, markedly upregulated levels of PDGF-AA (long form) were found. In both types of wounds, increased PDGF-AA was detected primarily in capillaries and fibroblasts, although in rPDGF-BB-treated chronic wounds, widespread expression of PDGF-AA was somewhat delayed. With continued treatment, the long form of PDGF-AA, which can preferentially bind extracellular matrix, was expressed only in capillaries, while fibroblasts began synthesizing the short form of PDGF-AA. Within capillaries, all endothelial cells and varying numbers of pericytes and smooth muscle cells contained PDGF-AA. In all wounds, macrophages and keratinocytes were not a major contributor. While PDGF-BB and PDGF-AB were present in a minority of healing wounds, they were usually present at lower levels than PDGF-AA. PDGF-beta receptors, which bind only PDGF-BB and not other isoforms, were found in normal skin and granulation tissue, providing a molecular basis for treating human chronic wounds with exogenous rPDGF-BB.Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/1995; 96(3):1336-50. · 12.81 Impact Factor