[Current topics in the regulation of prostanoids--4. The feedback regulation by PPAR-gamma].
ABSTRACT Recently, it has become known that lipophilic hormones such as steroids and thyroid hormones, or fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A and D) pass through the cellular membrane and bind to the nuclear receptor superfamily to act as transcription factors. The metabolite of prostaglandin (PG) D2, 15-deoxy-D12,14PGJ2, has been identified as the ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. It forms a transcription factor and is responsible not only for the differentiation of fibroblasts to adipocytes, but also for the regulation of activated macrophages. It is now known that thiazolidinediones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs classified as cyclooxygenase blockers such as indomethacine and ibuprofen also act as PPAR-gamma agonists and inhibit cytokine production from activated macrophages. PPAR-gamma has become recognized as a new therapeutic target for inflammation control.