Regulation of GLUT4 protein expression and glycogen storage after prolonged exercise.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of GLUT4 protein accumulation following an exercise-carbohydrate supplementation regimen, and to evaluate the effect of this regimen on GLUT4 mRNA regulation. Rats were exercised by swimming and intubated with 1 mL of a 50% glucose solution immediately post-exercise. Exercise significantly reduced muscle glycogen by 50%. By 1.5 h of recovery, muscle glycogen was normalized, but continued to increase above the control level during the next 16 h. A faster and larger repletion of glycogen occurred in the fast-twitch red compared with the fast-twitch white muscle during the 16 h of recovery. GLUT4 protein concentration in fast-twitch red muscle was significantly increased above control by 1.5 h of recovery, and progressively increased throughout the recovery period. Fast-twitch white muscle demonstrated a similar trend, but the increase in GLUT4 protein did not reach significance until 5 h of recovery. Fast-twitch red muscle GLUT4 mRNA was increased by 53% above control immediately post-exercise, but returned to the control level by 1.5 h of recovery. GLUT4 mRNA associated with polysomes, however, increased significantly during this time and remained elevated for a minimum of 5 h. The results suggest that the increased GLUT4 protein expression following a regimen of exercise-carbohydrate supplementation occurs sufficiently fast to contribute to the resynthesis of muscle glycogen, and is controlled by both pre-translational and translational mechanisms.
- SourceAvailable from: jbc.orgJournal of Biological Chemistry 10/1965; 240(9):3493-500. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to simultaneously isolate skeletal muscle plasma and microsomal membranes from the hind limbs of male Sprague-Dawley rats perfused either in the absence or presence of 20 milliunits/ml insulin and to determine the effect of insulin on the number and distribution of glucose transporters in these membrane fractions. Insulin increased hind limb glucose uptake greater than 3-fold (2.4 +/- 0.7 versus 9.2 +/- 1.0 mumol/g x h, p less than 0.001). Plasma membrane glucose transporter number, measured by cytochalasin B binding, increased 2-fold (9.1 +/- 1.0 to 20.4 +/- 3.1 pmol/mg protein, p less than 0.005) in insulin-stimulated muscle while microsomal membrane transporters decreased significantly (14.8 +/- 1.6 to 9.8 +/- 1.4 pmol/mg protein, p less than 0.05). No change in the dissociation constant (Kd approximately 120 nm) was observed. K+-stimulated-p-nitrophenol phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, and galactosyltransferase specific activity, enrichment, and recovery in the plasma and microsomal membrane fractions were not altered by insulin treatment. Western blot analysis using the monoclonal antibody mAb 1F8 (specific for the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter) demonstrated increased glucose transporter densities in plasma membranes from insulin-treated hind limb skeletal muscle compared with untreated tissues, while microsomal membranes from the insulin-treated hind limb skeletal muscle had a concomitant decrease in transporter density. We conclude that the increase in plasma membrane glucose transporters explains, at least in part, the increase in glucose uptake associated with insulin stimulation of hind limb skeletal muscle. Our data further suggest that these recruited transporters originate from an intracellular microsomal pool, consistent with the translocation hypothesis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/1990; 265(2):987-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucose transport in skeletal muscle is mediated by two distinct transporter isoforms, designated muscle/adipose glucose transporter (Glut4) and erythrocyte/HepG2/brain glucose transporter (Glut1), which differ in both abundance and membrane distribution. The present study was designed to investigate whether differences in insulin responsiveness of red and white muscle might be due to differential expression of the glucose transporter isoforms. Glucose transport, as well as Glut1 and Glut4 protein and mRNA levels, were determined in red and white portions of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles of male Sprague-Dawley rats (body wt. approx. 250 g). Maximal glucose transport (in response to 100 nM-insulin) in the perfused hindlimb was 3.6 times greater in red than in white muscle. Red muscle contained approx. 5 times more total Glut4 protein and 2 times more Glut4 mRNA than white muscle, but there were no differences in the Glut1 protein or mRNA levels between the fibre types. Our data indicate that differences in responsiveness of glucose transport in specific skeletal muscle fibre types may be dependent upon the amount of Glut4 protein. Because this protein plays such an integral part in glucose transport in skeletal muscle, any impairment in its expression may play a role in insulin resistance.Biochemical Journal 10/1990; 270(2):397-400. · 4.65 Impact Factor