Is sunlight an aetiological agent in the genesis of retinoblastoma?

Department of Pathology, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, UK.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 04/1999; 79(7-8):1273-6. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6690204
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of unilateral, but not bilateral, retinoblastoma in human populations at different geographical locations increases significantly with ambient erythemal dose of ultraviolet B radiation from sunlight. This supports the hypothesis that sunlight plays a role in retinoblastoma formation.

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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma.
    American journal of epidemiology 08/2013; 178(8). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt129 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this report by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) is to provide an overview of the geographical patterns of variation in the incidence of different types of childhood cancer, and the relation of these to certain socio-demographic factors, and to examine whether spatial or space–time clustering are part of the general pattern of occurrence of childhood leukaemia and other cancers. This report has been written, in response to recommendations in earlier COMARE reports, in order to relate findings around nuclear installations to the general geographical epidemiology of childhood cancer.
    07/2006; Department of Health., ISBN: 0-85951-578-8
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma is the most common neoplasm of the eye in childhood, and represents 3% of all childhood malignancies. Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the very young; two-thirds are diagnosed before 2 years of age and 95% before 5 years. Retinoblastoma presents in 2 distinct clinical forms: (1) a bilateral or multifocal, heritable form (25% of all cases), characterized by the presence of germline mutations of the RB1 gene; and (2) a unilateral or unifocal form (75% of all cases), 90% of which are nonhereditary. The treatment of retinoblastoma is multidisciplinary and is designed primarily to save life and preserve vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Clinics of North America 02/2015; 62(1):201-223. DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2014.09.014 · 2.20 Impact Factor


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