A randomized controlled study of pergolide in patients with restless legs syndrome.
ABSTRACT Open clinical trials indicate that low doses of pergolide, a long-acting D1 and D2 dopamine agonist, lead to a reduction in the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with subjective improvement in sleep quality.
To assess the therapeutic efficacy of pergolide in improving sleep and subjective measures of well-being in patients with idiopathic RLS using polysomnography and clinical ratings.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design we enrolled 30 patients with idiopathic RLS according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group. All patients were free of psychoactive drugs for at least 2 weeks before the study. Patients were monitored using polysomnography, clinical ratings, and sleep diaries at baseline and at the end of a 4-week pergolide or placebo treatment period. The initial dosage of 0.05 mg pergolide was increased to the best subjective improvement paralleled by 20 mg domperidone tid.
At a mean dosage of 0.51 mg pergolide as a single daily dose 2 hours before bedtime, there were fewer periodic leg movements per hour of time in bed (5.7 versus 54.9, p < 0.0001), and total sleep time was significantly longer (373 versus 261 minutes, p < 0.0001). Ratings of subjective sleep quality, quality of life, and severity of RLS were improved significantly without relevant adverse events.
Pergolide given as a single low-to-medium bedtime dose in combination with domperidone provides a well-tolerated and effective treatment of sensorimotor symptoms and sleep disturbances in patients with primary RLS.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate whether the monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B genes are associated with antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome (RLS) in schizophrenia. We assessed antipsychotic-induced RLS symptoms in 190 Korean schizophrenic patients and divided the subjects into two groups: those with RLS symptoms (n = 96) and those without RLS symptoms (n = 94). Genotyping was performed for the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of the MAOA gene and A644G polymorphism of the MAOB gene. There was no significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of all polymorphisms investigated between these two groups. However, the result of global haplotype analysis showed a significant difference in haplotype frequencies between male subjects with and without RLS symptoms (p = 0.013). The interaction between two polymorphisms had a significant effect on the RLS scores of both male (p = 0.047) and female (p = 0.028) patients. These data do not suggest that the MAOA gene VNTR and MAOB gene A644G polymorphisms are associated with antipsychotic-induced RLS symptoms in schizophrenia. However, we found that the haplotype frequencies differed between the male schizophrenic patients with and without RLS symptom and the interaction between the two polymorphisms had a significant influence on the RLS scores of patients with schizophrenia.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 07/2010; 25(5):397-403. DOI:10.1002/hup.1130 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pain conditions often "mimic" the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with worse pain in the evening and upon rest, associated with an urge to move and relief upon movement. We propose that too little has been made of these parallels, with pain conditions resembling RLS being dismissed as mimics. We found, in a large questionnaire study (n=283) on phantom limb perception, a pattern of phantom pain that resembled RLS: amputees with nocturnal phantom pain were more likely to report worse pain upon rest and/or lying down, with an urge to move the phantom and/or walk to relieve their pain, and to experience spontaneous limb movements akin to periodic leg movements of RLS. We present the hypothesis that a model of restless legs syndrome may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying phantom pain, and lead to new mechanism-based phantom pain treatment. In particular, central changes associated with sensory and motor symptoms of RLS, neuropathy, and dopamine may also be involved in those predisposed to experience phantom pain that mimics the symptoms of RLS. Ultimately, restless legs syndrome may indeed be a pain syndrome, and warrants further investigation in chronic pain populations.Medical Hypotheses 06/2010; 74(6):968-72. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.12.009 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of periodic leg movements during NREM and REM sleep (PLMS) and while awake (PLMW) and to assess the impact of PLMS on nocturnal sleep and daytime functioning in patients with narcolepsy. One hundred and sixty-nine patients with narcolepsy and 116 normal controls matched for age and gender were included. Narcoleptics with high and low PLMS indices were compared to assess the impact of PLMS on sleep and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) variables. More narcoleptics than controls had a PLMS index greater than 5 per hour of sleep (67% versus 37%) and an index greater than 10 (53% versus 21%). PLMS indices were higher both in NREM and REM sleep in narcoleptic patients, but the between-group difference was greater for REM sleep. A significant increase of PLMS index was also found with aging in both narcoleptic patients and controls. PLMW indices were also significantly higher in narcoleptic patients. Patients with an elevated index of PLMS had a higher percentage of stage 1 sleep, a lower percentage of REM sleep, a lower REM efficiency and a shorter MSLT latency. The present study demonstrates a high frequency of PLMS and PLMW in narcolepsy, an association between the presence of PLMS and measures of REM sleep and daytime functioning disruption. These results suggest that PLMS represent an intrinsic feature of narcolepsy.Journal of Sleep Research 10/2007; 16(3):333-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00601.x · 2.95 Impact Factor