Reaching and enrolling drug users for HIV prevention: a multi-site analysis.
ABSTRACT Since 1994, several sites have participated in a NIDA Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-based Outreach/Intervention Research Program to examine rates of HIV risk behaviors and evaluate HIV risk reduction interventions among out-of-treatment drug injection and crack cocaine and heroin smokers. We studied the process and outcome of community outreach for recruitment of drug users in AIDS research and education projects in three metropolitan areas: St. Louis, MO; San Antonio, TX, and Durham and Wake Counties, NC. There were two primary areas of focus: (1) the level of accuracy among community health outreach workers (CHOWs) in identifying potentially eligible persons for HIV prevention, and (2) overall effectiveness in recruiting and enrolling persons in formal assessment and intervention studies. We found cross-site and within-site differences in levels of accuracy and in recruitment and enrollment yields. Drug users who had never been in treatment and drug users who had never been tested for HIV infection were underrepresented at all sites. We discuss the factors which may have contributed to cross-site and within-site differences. The findings suggest a need for continued study, refinement, and evaluation of community outreach strategies in order to enroll a broad spectrum of vulnerable groups in HIV prevention activities.
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the association between using and sharing high dead-space syringes (HDSSs)--which retain over 1000 times more blood after rinsing than low dead-space syringes (LDSSs)--and prevalent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting drug users (IDUs). A sample of 851 out-of-treatment IDUs was recruited in Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, between 2003 and 2005. Participants were tested for HIV and HCV antibodies. Demographic, drug use, and injection practice data were collected via interviews. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Participants had a mean age of 40 years and 74% are male, 63% are African American, 29% are non-Hispanic white, and 8% are of other race/ethnicity. Overall, 42% of participants had ever used an HDSS and 12% had shared one. HIV prevalence was 5% among IDUs who had never used an HDSS compared with 16% among IDUs who had shared one. The HIV model used a propensity score approach to adjust for differences between IDUs who had used an HDSS and those who had never used one. The HCV models included all potential confounders as covariates. A history of sharing HDSSs was associated with prevalent HIV (odds ratio=2.50; 95% confidence interval=1.01, 6.15). Use and sharing of HDSSs were also associated with increased odds of HCV infection. Prospective studies are needed to determine if sharing HDSSs is associated with increased HIV and HCV incidence among IDUs.Drug and alcohol dependence 12/2008; 100(3):204-13. · 3.60 Impact Factor
Article: Risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases: a comparison study of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment versus a community-matched sample.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cocaine users routinely engage in high-risk sexual behaviors that place them at an elevated risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne infections. The purpose of the present study was to compare trading sex for drugs and/or money, having 10 or more sexual partners in 1 year, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment for their dependence across race and gender and against participants who live in their community. Cocaine-dependent individuals (n = 459) were identified through nine publicly and privately funded inpatient and outpatient chemical dependency treatment centers in the St. Louis area during 2001-2006. Community-based participants (n = 459) were matched to cocaine-dependent participants on age, ethnicity, gender, and zip code of residence. Mean age of the sample was 36 years old, 50% were Caucasians, 50% were African American, and 47% were male. Nearly half of cocaine-dependent participants in treatment had traded sex for drugs and/or money and over one-third had more than 10 sexual partners in 1 year with a risk concentrated among African Americans even after controlling for income and educational attainment. Participants recruited from the community with some exposure to cocaine reported similar rates of high risk sexual behaviors as the cocaine dependent subjects from treatment settings. It is important for clinicians to recognize that once released from treatment, cocaine-dependent individuals may be returning to high-risk environments where sexual risk behaviors are occurring in the context of cocaine use.AIDS patient care and STDs 09/2009; 23(9):727-34. · 2.68 Impact Factor
Article: HIV risk behaviors, perceived severity of drug use problems, and prior treatment experience in a sample of young heroin injectors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interviews were conducted with 203 male and 95 female heroin injectors aged 17 to 25 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nearly one-quarter of participants reported injecting with needles used by someone else. Few reported cleaning needles with bleach. Multiple sexual partnerships, unprotected sex, and trading sex for money were especially present among women, the majority (55%) of whom was HIV seropositive. Self reports suggest the presence of heroin dependence among users. While most participants expressed a desire to quit their use, only 14 (5%) had been in treatment. There appears to be a large unmet need for heroin use treatment. These findings need to be considered in light of a potential forthcoming wave of heroin injection in sub-Saharan Africa.African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies 01/2011; 10(1):1-9.