Invasive procedures available for diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain.Intensive care world 07/1993; 10(2):91-5.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency, etiology, and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and purulent tracheobronchitis (TBX) in patients who have undergone heart surgery. To study the predictive role of systematic surveillance cultures. Prospective study. Heart surgery intensive care unit. Intubated heart surgical patients. Systematic tracheal aspirate and protected brush catheter cultures of all intubated patients. Studied were the frequency of lower respiratory tract infection in ventilated patients and the role of surveillance cultures. The frequency of VAP was 7.87% (34.5 per 1,000 days of mechanical ventilation), and the criteria for purulent tracheobronchitis was fulfilled by 8.15% of patients (31.13 per 1,000 days of mechanical ventilation). After multivariate analysis, the variables independently associated with the development of respiratory tract infection were central nervous system disorder (relative risk [RR] = 4.7), ulcer disease (RR = 3.6), New York Heart Association score >/=3 (RR = 4), need for mechanical circulatory support (RR = 6.8), duration of mechanical ventilation >96 hrs (RR = 12.3), and reintubation (RR = 63.7). Mortality in our study was as follows: VAP patients, 57.1%; purulent tracheobronchitis patients, 20.7%; colonized patients, 11.5%; and noncolonized patients, 1.6%. Regular surveillance cultures were taken from all ventilated patients to assess the anticipative value of the cultures in predicting respiratory tract infection. A total of 1,626 respiratory surveillance samples were obtained. Surveillance cultures effectively predicted only one episode of VAP and one of tracheobronchitis. Patients undergoing heart surgery have a high frequency of VAP. VAP is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, surveillance cultures failed as an anticipative diagnostic method.Critical Care Medicine 08/2003; 31(7):1964-70. DOI:10.1097/01.ccm.0000084807.15352.93 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia have not been fully characterized and are likely to be different depending on whether infection is acquired in the community or the hospital. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 619 adults hospitalized between 2005 and 2010 with either MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) pneumonia. Patients with a respiratory culture within 48 h of hospitalization had community-onset pneumonia whereas patients with a culture collected after this time point had hospital-onset pneumonia. RESULTS: Among patients with community-onset disease, the risk for MRSA was increased by tobacco use (OR 2.31, CI 1.23-4.31), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 3.76, CI 1.74-8.08), and recent antibiotic exposure (OR 4.87, CI 2.35-10.1) in multivariate analysis while patients with hospital-onset disease had an increased MRSA risk with tobacco use (OR 2.66, CI 1.38-5.14), illicit drug use (OR 3.52, CI 2.21-5.59), and recent antibiotic exposure (OR 2.04, CI 3.54-13.01). Hospitalization within the prior three months was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.64, CI 0.46-0.89) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests there are common and distinct risk factors for MRSA pneumonia based on location of onset. The decreased risk for MRSA pneumonia associated with recent hospitalization is unexpected and warrants further investigation. SUMMARY: This case-control study showed that there are common and distinct risk factors associated with MRSA pneumonia depending on whether the infection onset is in the hospital or in the community. Recent hospitalization was unexpectedly shown to be associated with decreased risk for MRSA pneumonia and warrants further investigation.Respiratory medicine 06/2013; 107(8). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2013.05.006 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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