Survival in air of Mytilus trossulus following long-term exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil in Prince William Sound.
ABSTRACT Mussels, Mytilus trossulus, were sampled in 1996 from beaches in Prince William Sound (PWS) which contained residual oil resulting from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989, and from one beach which had been lightly oiled in 1989, but contained no residual oil in 1996. The latter mussels served as un-oiled references. Mussels were also collected from Tee Harbor, Southeast Alaska, to be used as an additional reference group. Where the size of the individuals in the resident population would permit, two size groups were sampled, 32-35 and 18-20 mm in length. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussel tissue, and air survival time were determined for each group of mussels. Total PAH concentrations were significantly greater in tissue of mussels from oiled beds (0.6-2.0 micrograms g-1) than from references (0.01-0.12 microgram g-1) (P < 0.01). Oil-exposed mussels had significantly lower LT50 values (P < 0.05) for air survival than reference groups. Tolerance of small mussels to air exposure was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than large mussels in both the unoiled reference and oil exposed groups.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study spatial and temporal variation in biomarkers in autochthonous Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled inside and outside Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a typical polluted semi-enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea characterised by scarce hydrodynamism. Mar Piccolo of Taranto represents a site of Italian National Interest because of the high level of pollution. A battery of biomarkers (lysosomal destabilisation, catalase, metallothioneins, acetylcholinesterase, air survival) was applied to assess pollution-induced stress effects in authoctonous mussels. The responses were analysed comparatively in two different seasons, summer and winter, in order to assess possible changes in the pollutant-induced stress syndrome throughout the year. No significant difference inside and outside Mar Piccolo was observed for metallothioneins. By contrast, the dramatically decreased acetylcholinesterase values and strongly increased catalase activity in organisms taken from Mar Piccolo in winter indicate an increased risk of exposure to anticholinesterase compounds during this season. The results suggest the importance of temporal variability in biomarker responses throughout the year for monitoring possible seasonal changes in the pollutant-induced stress syndrome of organisms living in a certain environment and, in turn, more properly detecting changes in ecotoxicological risks.Chemistry and Ecology 01/2010; 26:143-153. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The unwanted artificial oil-spill has severely contaminated the coastal environment in the world. Level of contamination has so far been monitered by various indicator species including mussel, oysters, flounder, and cockle. In this study, we decided to use the oyster as a model organism to observe the morphological changes being exposed to the artificial oil-spill in the coastal areas in Taean, Korea. The oysters were collected from four local sites (Sindu-ri, Uiwang-ri, Jonghyeon-dong, Ansan and Uihang-ri) exposed to various levels of pollution after an oil spill in Taean. Microscopic analysis of the hepatopancreatic microstructure in the digestive gland from the collected oysters show that the swelling, whorl, and destruction phenomenon of the nuclear membrane, a well-known microstructure induced by heavy metal exposure, was observed. Nuclear body (Nb), another typical characteristic of contamination or infection were also observed in some samples. Necrosis was observed in tissue samples collected from the area with a high degree of oil pollution. In addition, parasite-like particles (virus, perkinsus) were observed in most samples. Taken together, these results suggest that oil contamination in the oyster habitats influences the cytopathological changes in Crassostrea gigas.The Korean Journal of Malacology. 01/2011; 27(1).