Sex differences in the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior: Results from two twin studies
ABSTRACT Recent theory and results from twin and adoption studies of children and adolescents suggest greater genetic influence on aggressive as compared to nonaggressive antisocial behavior. In addition, quantitative or qualitative differences in the etiology of these behaviors in males and females have been indicated in the literature. The Child Behavior Checklist was completed by the parents of 1022 Swedish twin pairs aged 7-9 years and of 501 British twin pairs aged 8-16 years. Genetic factors influenced aggressive antisocial behavior to a far greater extent than nonaggressive antisocial behavior, which was also significantly influenced by the shared environment. There was a significant sex difference in the etiology of nonaggressive antisocial behavior. Bivariate analyses supported the conclusion that the etiologies of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior differ for males and females.
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ABSTRACT: Schlüsselwörter Primärer und sekundärer Krankheitsgewinn, destruktive Impulse, Todestrieb, kalte Befriedigung, Delinquenz als Hoffnung, grenzsetzendes Containment, Chronifizierung von Delinquenz Zusammenfassung Üblicherweise werden unter dem Begriff "sekundärer Krankheitsgewinn" narzisstische oder libidinöse Befriedigungen verstanden, die durch die Ausnützung der Folgen psychischer oder körperlicher Krankheiten lukriert werden. An-schließend an Freuds Analyse des Wiederholungszwanges hat die psychoanalytische Ob-jektbeziehungstheorie die Bedeutung von destruktiven Impulsen und Zielen bei schweren Persönlichkeitsstörungen und malignen Perversionen hervorgehoben. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht nun deren Rolle im sekundären Krankheitsgewinn von Patienten, deren destruk-tive Energien sich v. a. in chronische Delinquenz umsetzen. Es werden Fälle beschrieben, in denen das erste Auftreten von Delinquenz unbewusst v. a. einem Aufrufen von grenzsetzendem Containing dient und nur dessen Scheitern in Verbindung mit sekundären Krankheitsgewin-nen zur Chronifizierung der Delinquenz führt. Bei anderen jugendlichen Straftätern findet sich eine primäre Dominanz von kalter Zufrieden-heit über gelungene Rache, narzisstischen Tri-umph und mutwillige Zerstörung. In diesen Fäl-len ist die Rolle von sekundären Krankheitsge-winnen als relativ gering einzustufen. Summary Usually the term "secondary gain" is used to designate narcissistic and libidinal gratification capitalized from the effects of mental disorders or physical illness. Following Freud's analysis of the compulsion to repeat psychoanalytic object relations theory has stressed the impact of des-tructive impulses and aims in severe personality disorders and malign perversions. The present paper explores their role within the secondary gain of patients, whose destructive energies translate themselves mainly into chronic delin-quency. Cases are described, in which the first emergence of delinquency unconsciously serves the invocation of a boundary-setting contain-ment, and where only the failure of that in com-bination with secondary gains results in a chro-nification of delinquency. In other juvenile of-fenders one finds a primary dominance of cold satisfaction about realised revenge, narcissistic triumph and wilful destruction. In these cases the role of secondary gain can be judged as relatively small. Primary and secondary gain in delinquent patients
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ABSTRACT: Externalizing problems and aggression can lead to difficulties adjustment and suffering during childhood and in later stages, and several factors have been related to these patterns of behavior. This article analyses the findings of Brazilian empirical studies about these issues. A bibliographical survey of complete articles published in Brazil from 2000 to 2010, in the following databases: SciELO Brazil, PePSIC, LILACS, IndexPsi and MEDLINE was conducted. The results presented in the 30 selected articles were analyzed in seven categories: parenting practices and parental social skills; family characteristics; child characteristics, especially gender; exposure to violent role models; parental intervention programs; externalizing complaints and others. The conclusion is that Brazilian studies have contributed to the identification of predictors of externalizing problems/child aggressiveness, investigating, especially factors related to infants characteristics and parenting practices.Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia 09/2012; 64(3):57-75.
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ABSTRACT: Background: To investigate the phenomenon of internet addiction and concurrent social (off-line) behaviours of an adolescent population a cross-sectional survey of the entire adolescent student population (N = 1270, aged 14–18) of the island of Kos in Greece was conducted. Method: Completion by the survey participants of a demographic questionnaire, the 8-question YDQ (Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction) and the 20-question IAT (Internet Addiction Test), followed by comparative analysis between and within usage groups. Results: Results demonstrate that 7.2% of male and 5.1% of female internet users present addictive behaviours while using the internet. Conclusions: Anti-social, aggressive behaviours were significantly correlated with an increase to the pattern of abusive internet use in both sexes. Boys and girls had distinct profiles of off-line and online preferences. Boys tended to favour interest-driven online activities as their levels of addictive behaviour increased while girls favoured communication-driven online activities.Child and Adolescent Mental Health 02/2012; 17(1):37. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2011.00605.x · 0.95 Impact Factor