Sex Differences in the Etiology of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from Two Twin Studies

Department of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, England, United Kingdom
Child Development (Impact Factor: 4.72). 01/1999; 70(1):155-68. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00012
Source: PubMed


Recent theory and results from twin and adoption studies of children and adolescents suggest greater genetic influence on aggressive as compared to nonaggressive antisocial behavior. In addition, quantitative or qualitative differences in the etiology of these behaviors in males and females have been indicated in the literature. The Child Behavior Checklist was completed by the parents of 1022 Swedish twin pairs aged 7-9 years and of 501 British twin pairs aged 8-16 years. Genetic factors influenced aggressive antisocial behavior to a far greater extent than nonaggressive antisocial behavior, which was also significantly influenced by the shared environment. There was a significant sex difference in the etiology of nonaggressive antisocial behavior. Bivariate analyses supported the conclusion that the etiologies of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior differ for males and females.

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    • "Accumulating evidence suggests that impulsive violent behavior is partially determined by genetic factors.[5] A previous study found that dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) polymorphism is highly associated with impulsivity.[6] "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundAnalysis of genetic polymorphisms in short tandem repeats (STRs) is an accepted method for detecting associations between genotype and phenotype but it has not previously been used in the study of the genetics of impulsive violent behavior.ObjectiveCompare the prevalence of different polymorphisms in 15 STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) between men with a history of impulsive violence and male control subjects without a history of impulsive violence.MethodsThe distributions of the alleles of the 15 STR loci were compared between 407 cases with impulsive violent behavior and 415 controls using AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ kits.ResultsCompared to controls, the average frequencies of the following alleles were significantly lower in individuals with a history of violent behavior: allele 10 of TH01 (OR=0.29, 95%CI=0.16-0.52, p<0.0001,), allele 8 of TPOX (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.58-0.86, p=0.0005), allele 9 of TPOX (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.47-0.89, p=0.0072) and allele 14 of CSF1PO (OR=0.27, 95%CI=0.11-0.68, p=0.0035). One allele was significantly higher in cases than controls: allele 11 of TPOX (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.45-2.22, p<0.0001).ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first behavioral genetic study that clearly demonstrates a close relationship between specific genetic markers and impulsive aggression in non-psychiatric offenders. Further prospective work will be needed to determine whether or not the alleles identified can be considered risk factors for impulsive aggression and, if so, the underlying mechanisms that result in this relationship.
    Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry 12/2013; 25(6):354-63. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1002-0829.2013.06.004
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    • "Es gibt heute überzeugende psychologische und neurophysiologische Forschungsergebnisse, die einen beträchtlichen hereditären Faktor für die Entwicklung antisozialer Tendenzen nachgewiesen haben. In Zwillingsstudien konnte recht eindeutig gezeigt werden , dass gewalttätiges antisoziales Verhalten vererbbar ist und zwar in deutlich höherem Ausmaß als andere Persönlichkeitszüge (Eley et al. 1999; Rhee u. Waldmann 2002; Fonagy 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Schlüsselwörter Primärer und sekundärer Krankheitsgewinn, destruktive Impulse, Todestrieb, kalte Befriedigung, Delinquenz als Hoffnung, grenzsetzendes Containment, Chronifizierung von Delinquenz Zusammenfassung Üblicherweise werden unter dem Begriff "sekundärer Krankheitsgewinn" narzisstische oder libidinöse Befriedigungen verstanden, die durch die Ausnützung der Folgen psychischer oder körperlicher Krankheiten lukriert werden. An-schließend an Freuds Analyse des Wiederholungszwanges hat die psychoanalytische Ob-jektbeziehungstheorie die Bedeutung von destruktiven Impulsen und Zielen bei schweren Persönlichkeitsstörungen und malignen Perversionen hervorgehoben. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht nun deren Rolle im sekundären Krankheitsgewinn von Patienten, deren destruk-tive Energien sich v. a. in chronische Delinquenz umsetzen. Es werden Fälle beschrieben, in denen das erste Auftreten von Delinquenz unbewusst v. a. einem Aufrufen von grenzsetzendem Containing dient und nur dessen Scheitern in Verbindung mit sekundären Krankheitsgewin-nen zur Chronifizierung der Delinquenz führt. Bei anderen jugendlichen Straftätern findet sich eine primäre Dominanz von kalter Zufrieden-heit über gelungene Rache, narzisstischen Tri-umph und mutwillige Zerstörung. In diesen Fäl-len ist die Rolle von sekundären Krankheitsge-winnen als relativ gering einzustufen. Summary Usually the term "secondary gain" is used to designate narcissistic and libidinal gratification capitalized from the effects of mental disorders or physical illness. Following Freud's analysis of the compulsion to repeat psychoanalytic object relations theory has stressed the impact of des-tructive impulses and aims in severe personality disorders and malign perversions. The present paper explores their role within the secondary gain of patients, whose destructive energies translate themselves mainly into chronic delin-quency. Cases are described, in which the first emergence of delinquency unconsciously serves the invocation of a boundary-setting contain-ment, and where only the failure of that in com-bination with secondary gains results in a chro-nification of delinquency. In other juvenile of-fenders one finds a primary dominance of cold satisfaction about realised revenge, narcissistic triumph and wilful destruction. In these cases the role of secondary gain can be judged as relatively small. Primary and secondary gain in delinquent patients
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    • "Contudo, a maioria deles não encontrou diferenças significativas. De acordo com a literatura internacional, as meninas teriam maior tendência a apresentar problemas internalizantes, enquanto os meninos tenderiam a apresentar mais problemas externalizantes (Breslow, Klinger & Erickson, 1999; Eley, Lichenstein & Stevenson, 1999; Storvoll & Wichstrom, 2002; Tremblay, 2000). No estudo de Rubin, Burgess, Dwyer e Hastings (2003), por exemplo, os meninos apresentaram mais comportamentos agressivos aos dois anos (t(100) = 2.73, p < 0,01) e mais problemas externalizantes aos quatro anos t(71.48) "
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    ABSTRACT: Externalizing problems and aggression can lead to difficulties adjustment and suffering during childhood and in later stages, and several factors have been related to these patterns of behavior. This article analyses the findings of Brazilian empirical studies about these issues. A bibliographical survey of complete articles published in Brazil from 2000 to 2010, in the following databases: SciELO Brazil, PePSIC, LILACS, IndexPsi and MEDLINE was conducted. The results presented in the 30 selected articles were analyzed in seven categories: parenting practices and parental social skills; family characteristics; child characteristics, especially gender; exposure to violent role models; parental intervention programs; externalizing complaints and others. The conclusion is that Brazilian studies have contributed to the identification of predictors of externalizing problems/child aggressiveness, investigating, especially factors related to infants characteristics and parenting practices.
    Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia 09/2012; 64(3):57-75.
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