Bone mineral density in perimenopausal women with asthma: a population-based cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT It is not known whether asthma constitutes a risk factor for osteoporosis or what the impact is of inhaled corticosteroids on bone mineral density (BMD). The study population (n = 3,222) was a random stratified sample from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Study, which included all women 47 to 56 yr of age residing in Kuopio Province, Eastern Finland. Spinal and femoral BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values of 119 asthmatics were cross-sectionally compared with those of 3,103 nonasthmatics. Of the 119 asthmatic women, 28 had not used corticosteroids, 65 had used oral corticosteroids, and 26 had used only inhaled corticosteroids. The asthmatics with no hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (n = 83) had lower mean spinal and femoral BMD value than did the corresponding nonasthmatics (spinal BMD, 1.083 +/- 0.150 [SD] versus 1.128 +/- 0.160 g/cm2, p < 0.05; femoral BMD, 0.894 +/- 0.112 [SD] versus 0.929 +/- 0.128 g/cm2, p < 0.05). Although BMDs were not significantly decreased in the asthmatics who had used inhaled corticosteroids, the duration of use correlated negatively with spinal BMD and was also associated with spinal BMD in multiple regression analysis. In perimenopausal women, asthma is associated with decreased bone density. This may be due to the corticosteroids rather than to the disease itself. However, HRT appears to be protective against bone loss also in asthmatics.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we found that two years of treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, was more effective than treatment with an inhaled beta 2-agonist, terbutaline, in patients with newly diagnosed, generally mild asthma. We continued this study for a third year to investigate whether the steroid dose could be reduced or discontinued and what effect crossover of patients from beta 2-agonist therapy to corticosteroid therapy would have. A total of 37 patients treated for two years with inhaled budesonide at a dose of 1200 micrograms per day were randomly assigned to treatment with 400 micrograms of budesonide per day (19 patients) or placebo (18 patients) in a double-blind manner. Another 37 patients, who had received terbutaline during the first two years, were crossed over in an open-label manner to treatment with 1200 micrograms of budesonide per day during the third year. Treatment with the reduced dose of budesonide was sufficiently effective in 74 percent of the patients to maintain bronchial responsiveness at a level similar to that achieved with the higher dose. In contrast, improvement was maintained in only 33 percent of the patients receiving placebo, and the differences in pulmonary function between the steroid and placebo groups were significant (for forced expiratory volume in one second, P = 0.007; for bronchial responsiveness to histamine, P = 0.025; and for peak expiratory flow in the morning, P = 0.040). The condition of patients who were crossed over from terbutaline therapy to treatment with 1200 micrograms of budesonide per day improved. However, the degree of improvement in these patients appeared to be less than in those who were treated with budesonide at the beginning of the three-year study. Early treatment with inhaled budesonide results in long-lasting control of mild asthma. Maintenance therapy can usually be given at a reduced dose, but discontinuation of treatment is often accompanied by exacerbation of the disease.New England Journal of Medicine 10/1994; 331(11):700-5. · 51.66 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhaled corticosteroids have become a key element in the maintenance treatment of bronchial asthma. It is well-known that long-term systemic steroid use causes osteoporosis, whereas its inhaled counterpart has been believed to be devoid of such a side-effect. However, recent studies showed that administration of inhaled corticosteroids was associated with biochemical evidence of derangement in bone turnover. We therefore studied bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 30 patients (18 females, 12 males) with bronchial asthma treated with steroids, essentially by the inhaled route only (both nasal and tracheobronchial), and compared them with healthy subjects individually matched for age, sex, menopausal status, and body mass index (BMI). There was a significant decrease in BMD in the patient group at the hip (neck of femur, p = 0.007; trochanter of femur, p = 0.034; Ward's triangle, p = 0.016) and the lumbar area of the spine (L2-4, p = 0.041). Further analysis showed that this difference from control subjects was mainly seen in the female patients and not in the male patients (neck of femur, p = 0.049; Ward's triangle, p = 0.025; lumbar spine, p = 0.039). In the female patients, there was significant negative correlation of BMD of the lumbar area of the spine and the trochanter of femur with daily inhaled steroid dose and positive correlation of BMD of the trochanter with BMI.Chest 07/1994; 105(6):1722-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine whether high-dose or prolonged inhaled steroid therapy for asthma increases a patient's risk of osteoporosis and fracture, we measured bone density in 26 men and 43 women (41 postmenopausal, all of whom had received supplemental estrogen therapy) after treatment with an inhaled steroid for 10.1 +/- 5.5 years and oral prednisone for 10.7 +/- 9.7 years (mean +/- SD). Most had stopped receiving prednisone since commencing the inhaled steroid therapy. We found that bone densities (adjusted for age and sex to yield a z score) were lower in association with higher daily doses of inhaled steroid (p = 0.013 ANCOVA) and with the duration of past prednisone therapy (p = 0.032). Larger cumulative inhaled steroid doses were associated with higher bone densities (p = 0.002) and a reduction in the numbers of patients at risk of fracture. Bone density also increased with the amount of supplemental estrogen therapy (p = 0.058) and, at equivalent levels of inhaled and oral steroid use, women showed higher bone density z scores than did men. Women with a lifetime dose of inhaled steroid greater than 3 gm had normal bone density regardless of the amount of past or current prednisone use or the current dose of inhaled steroid. These data indicate that the daily dose, but not the duration, of inhaled steroid therapy may adversely affect bone density, and that estrogen therapy may offset this bone-depleting effect in postmenopausal women.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 09/1995; 96(2):157-66. · 12.05 Impact Factor