Exercise training enhances endothelial function in young men

Cardiothoracic Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 05/1999; 33(5):1379-85. DOI: 10.1016/S0735-1097(96)82043-2
Source: PubMed


The present study was designed to assess whether exercise training can enhance endothelium-dependent dilatation in healthy young men.
Exercise has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms for this benefit are unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis, and animal studies have shown that exercise training can enhance endothelial function.
We have examined the effect of a standardized, 10-week, aerobic and anaerobic exercise training program on arterial physiology in 25 healthy male military recruits, aged 17 to 24 (mean 20) years, of average fitness levels. Each subject was studied before starting, and after completing the exercise program. Baseline vascular reactivity was compared with that of 20 matched civilian controls. At each visit, the diameter of the right brachial artery was measured at rest, during reactive hyperemia (increased flow causing endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual glyceryltrinitrate (GTN; an endothelium-independent dilator), using high-resolution external vascular ultrasound.
At baseline, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and GTN-mediated dilatation were similar in the exercise and control groups (FMD 2.2+/-2.4% and 2.4+/-2.8%, respectively, p = 0.33; GTN 13.4+/-6.2 vs. 16.7+/-5.9, respectively, p = 0.53). In the military recruits, FMD improved from 2.2+/-2.4% to 3.9+/-2.5% (p = 0.01), with no change in the GTN-mediated dilation (13.4+/-6.2% vs. 13.9+/-5.8%, p = 0.31) following the exercise program.
Exercise training enhances endothelium-dependent dilation in young men of average fitness. This may contribute to the benefit of regular exercise in preventing cardiovascular disease.

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    • "Our results support these earlier studies (Hagberg et al., 1989; McGowan et al., 2006) Clarkson et al., (1999), indicated that endothelium-dependent dilation in young men enhanced by aerobic exercise training was beneficial in preventing CV Diseases. These exercises maintain a high level of fitness, prevent age-related decline of microvascular NO-mediated vasodilator function, the higher levels of NO confer anti-atherogenic benefit and prevent microvascular dysfunction in humans (Clarkson et al., 1999). It is worth mentioning that regular moderate intensity exercise can be used to improve metabolic risk factors such as insulin and leptin levels in overweight/obese postmenopausal women (Frank et al., 2005). "

    10/2014; 18(5):74-78. DOI:10.15561/20755279.2014.0514
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    • "Fortunately, it may be possible to alleviate the decline in vascular health that accompanies aging. There is evidence that aerobic exercise is associated with improved endothelial function, greater arterial elasticity, and reduced risks for vascular diseases in aging adults (Clarkson et al., 1999; DeSouza et al., 2000). Likewise, animal studies have shown improvements in endothelial function and increases in CBF with increased aerobic exercise (Endres et al., 2003; Gertz et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The brain's vasculature is likely to be subjected to the same age-related physiological and anatomical changes affecting the rest of the cardiovascular system. Since aerobic fitness is known to alleviate both cognitive and volumetric losses in the brain, it is important to investigate some of the possible mechanisms underlying these beneficial changes. Here we investigated the role that estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) plays in determining the relationship between aging and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a group of older adults (ages 55-85). Using arterial spin labeling to quantify CBF, we found that blood flow in the gray matter was positively correlated with eCRF and negatively correlated with age. Subsequent analyses revealed that eCRF fully mediated the effects of age on CBF in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. Additionally, regional measures of CBF were related to regional measures of brain volume. These findings provide evidence that age-related effects on cerebrovascular health and perfusion in older adults are largely influenced by their eCRF levels.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 04/2014; 6:59. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00059 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    • "Chronic aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular function in humans. This is true not only in healthy subjects without underlying risk factors [9], but also in older people [10] and those with cardiovascular risk factors [11]. Indeed, those with cardiovascular risk factor/disease will benefit more. "
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelium plays a critical role in the maintenance of cardiovascular health by producing nitric oxide and other vasoactive materials. Aging is associated with a gradual decline in this functional aspect of endothelial regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Indeed, age is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is in part an important factor in the increased exponential mortality rates from vascular disease such as myocardial infarction and stroke that occurs in the ageing population. There are a number of mechanisms suggested to explain age-related endothelial dysfunction. However, recent scientific studies have advanced the notion of oxidative stress and inflammation as the two major risk factors underlying aging and age-related diseases. Regular physical activity, known to have a favorable effect on cardiovascular health, can also improve the function of the ageing endothelium by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory processes, as we discuss in this paper.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 08/2013; 2013(22):789607. DOI:10.1155/2013/789607 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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