Radiation detectors in nuclear medicine.
ABSTRACT Single-photon-emitting or positron-emitting radionuclides employed in nuclear medicine are detected by using sophisticated imaging devices, whereas simpler detection devices are used to quantify activity for the following applications: measuring doses of radiopharmaceuticals, performing radiotracer bioassays, and monitoring and controlling radiation risk in the clinical environment. Detectors are categorized in terms of function, the physical state of the transducer, or the mode of operation. The performance of a detector is described by the parameters efficiency, energy resolution and discrimination, and dead time. A detector may be used to detect single events (pulse mode) or to measure the rate of energy deposition (current mode). Some detectors are operated as simple counting systems by using a single-channel pulse height analyzer to discriminate against background or other extraneous events. Other detectors are operated as spectrometers and use a multichannel analyzer to form an energy spectrum. The types of detectors encountered in nuclear medicine are gas-filled detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. The ionization detector, Geiger-Müller detector, extremity and area monitor, dose calibrator, well counter, thyroid uptake probe, Anger scintillation camera, positron emission tomographic scanner, solid-state personnel dosimeter, and intraoperative probe are examples of detectors used in clinical nuclear medicine practice.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: With the dizzying changes in the rapidly evolving profession of radiology, the structure of resident education in the associated sciences of imaging, physics, radiobiology, and radiation effects must be reevaluated continually. What roles do these basic radiologic sciences play in bolstering the neophyte radiologist on a career of patient care? How should we define the spectrum of material that should be learned? How should that spectrum be taught? Who decides these things? With the impending changes in the radiology board certification process, questions have been raised as to how these changes will affect education in a residency program. Should the basic science curriculum be enhanced or scaled back? With the emphasis on practical applied physics, what is considered old school and what is new school material? CONCLUSION: This article describes one approach adopted by a large residency program to address these issues.American Journal of Roentgenology 01/2011; 196(1):152-6. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recent introduction of high-resolution molecular imaging technology is considered by many experts as a major breakthrough that will potentially lead to a revolutionary paradigm shift in health care and revolutionize clinical practice . This paper explores the challenges and strengths of the current major imaging modalities, as well as the biophysics engineering their repertoire of capabilities. Advancements in the mechanical aspects of both PET and SPECT imaging will advance molecular imaging diagnostic capabilities and have a direct impact on clinical and research practice . A better understanding of the strengths and limitations of functional imaging modalities in the context of their particular hardware and software mechanics will shed light onto how we can advance their diagnostic capabilities on a biological level. Herein, this paper demonstrates the fundamental biomechanical differences between PET and SPECT imaging, and how these fundamental differences translate into clinically relevant data acquisition for brain disorders.Journal of nuclear medicine & radiation therapy. 07/2013; 4(3).