Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.

Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.
Postgraduate Medical Journal (Impact Factor: 1.55). 12/1998; 74(877):677-8. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.74.877.677
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT At our hospital, the number of cases of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea increased from 29 in 1993 to 210 in 1995. The case notes of 110 patients with C difficile-associated diarrhoea during the first 6 months of 1995 were analysed retrospectively. The majority of the patients (106) had received antibiotics before the onset of diarrhoea; 46 had received three or more different antibiotics and 28 had received metronidazole. In 19 patients, the first stool sample after the onset of diarrhoea was negative for C difficile cytotoxin, with a mean delay of 8.2 days before a positive stool sample. We conclude that C difficile-associated diarrhoea was associated with the usage of multiple antibiotics, and that metronidazole did not protect against colonisation by C difficile. We also recommend that more than one stool sample should be tested for the C difficile cytotoxin.

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    ABSTRACT: Although Clostridium difficile is the main agent responsible for nosocomial diarrhea in adults, its prevalence in stool cultures sent to hospital microbiology laboratories is not clearly established. To determine the prevalence of C difficile in inpatient stools sent to hospital microbiology laboratories and to assess the relationship between serotypes and toxigenicity of the strains isolated and the clinical data. From January 18, 1993, to July 31, 1993, the presence of C difficile was systematically investigated in a case-control study on 3921 stool samples sent for stool culture to 11 French hospital microbiology laboratories. The prevalence of C difficile in this population (cases) was compared with that of a group of 229 random hospital controls matched for age, department, and length of stay (controls). Stool culture from controls was requested by the laboratory although not prescribed by the clinical staff. Serotype and toxigenesis of the strains isolated were compared. The overall prevalence of C difficile in the cases was twice the prevalence in the controls (9.7% vs 4.8%; P < .001) and was approximately 4 times as high in diarrheal stools (ie, soft or liquid) as in normally formed stools from controls (11.5% vs 3.3%; P < .001). The strains isolated from diarrheal stools were more frequently toxigenic than those isolated from normally formed stools. Serogroup D was never toxigenic, and its proportion was statistically greater in the controls than in the cases (45% vs 18%; chi 2 = 5.2; P < .05). Conversely, serogroup C was isolated only from the cases. Clostridium difficile was mainly found in older patients ( > 65 years), suffering from a severe disabling disease, who had been treated with antibiotics and hospitalized for more than 1 week in long-stay wards or in intensive care. This multicenter period prevalence study clearly supports the hypothesis of a common role of C difficile in infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Disease associated with C difficile should therefore be systematically evaluated in diarrheal stools from inpatients.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 07/1996; 156(13):1449-54. DOI:10.1001/archinte.1996.00440120107012 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is a hospital acquired infection in which optimal methods for diagnosis and the scale of the problem in the community remain to be determined. In hospitalised patients with CDAD, we aimed to (i) study patients in whom the onset of diarrhoea was in the community and (ii) investigate the role of bedside flexible sigmoidoscopy in diagnosis. Patients with CDAD (onset in hospital or community) were studied prospectively. In those with diarrhoea of unknown aetiology, flexible sigmoidoscopy was compared with stool assay for C difficile cytotoxin. Of 136 patients with CDAD (which was associated with antibiotic exposure in 96%), diarrhoea started in the community in 38 (28%; majority in own home) and while an inpatient in 98 (72%). The majority with CDAD onset in the community had been hospitalised over the preceding 12 months (86.8% v 57.1% in the hospital onset group; p<0.001). In 56 patients with pseudomembranous colitis at sigmoidoscopy, the stool C difficile cytotoxin test was negative in 29 (52%) but toxigenic C difficile was isolated from all of nine stool samples cultured. Of patients with pseudomembranous colitis, 30.4% relapsed over the subsequent 57.7(4.2) days. In a significant proportion of hospitalised patients with CDAD, diarrhoea started in the community. However, the majority of these had been hospital inpatients previously when they may have acquired C difficile, with the subsequent onset of diarrhoea in the community following exposure to antibiotics. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is superior to the stool C difficile cytotoxin test in a subgroup of patients with pseudomembranous colitis. Sigmoidoscopy should therefore be considered in all hospitalised patients with diarrhoea in whom the stool test for C difficile cytotoxin and enteric pathogens is negative.
    Gut 05/2004; 53(5):673-7. · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education, 12/2013: pages 1154-1163; Formatex Research Center., ISBN: 978-84-942134-0-3

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