Bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition of children with chronic renal failure, with and without growth hormone treatment.

Department of Paediatrics, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Clinical Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.35). 12/1998; 49(5):665-72.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteopenia has been reported in adult patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Only a few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, body composition in children with CRF and to study the effect of GH on these variables.
Two groups were identified: patients with growth retardation who received GH (GH-group) and patients most of whom were not growth retarded who did not receive GH (no-GH-group). After an observation period of 6 months, the patients in the GH-group started GH treatment. Patients were studied every 6 months during 18 months.
Thirty-six prepubertal patients (27 boys and 9 girls), mean age 7.9 years, with CRF participated in the study. The GH-group consisted of 17 patients of whom 14 completed one year treatment. The no-GH-group consisted of 19 patients, of whom 16 were followed for 6 months, 14 for 12 months and 13 for 18 months.
Lumbar spine BMD, total body BMD and body composition were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, compared to age-and sex-matched reference values of the same population and expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS). BMD of appendicular bone was measured by quantitative microdensitometry (QMD). Blood samples were obtained to assess bone metabolism and growth factors.
Baseline mean lumbar spine and total body BMD SDS of all patients were not significantly different from normal. Mean lumbar spine and total body BMD SDS did not change significantly in the GH-group during GH treatment. The change of QMD at the midshaft during the first 6 months of GH treatment was significantly smaller than during the observation period (P < 0.01). Height SDS and biochemical markers of both bone formation and bone resorption increased significantly during GH treatment; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D remained stable. Lean tissue mass increased (P < 0.001) and percentage body fat decreased (P < 0.01) during GH treatment. BMD, the biochemical markers of bone turnover which are independent of renal function, and body composition remained stable in the no-GH-group.
Mean lumbar spine and total body BMD of children with chronic renal failure did not differ from healthy controls. The lack of a GH-induced increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, probably due to treatment with alpha-calcidol, might be linked to the absence of a response in BMD during GH treatment in children with chronic renal failure.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Malnutrition is a frequent complication among children with renal diseases. Short stature is the main clinical sign. The aim of this study is to analyze the nutritional status of children with renal disease using anthropometry. METHODS: This cross sectional study enrolled 21 (43%) boys and 28 (57%) girls with age ranging from 5.3 to 19.5 years. They were divided in three groups based on their creatinine clearance (mL/min/1.73m2): Group 1, >37 (n=19); Group 2, between 15 and 37 (n=9) and Group 3, <15 (n=21). Weight and height were obtained in order to calculate the following indexes: Weight/age (W/A), height/age (H/A) and body mass index (BMI); then, Z scores were obtained. Malnutrition was defined as Z scores below -2. ANOVA test was used to compare groups. RESULTS: There were no differences among the groups for anthropometric data. 19 patients (38.8%) presented short-stature and 22 (44.8%) low-weight. Z scores were similar among groups relative to W/A, H/A and BMI values. W/A Z score values were: Group 1: -1.9±1.8; Group 2: -2.6±3.1 and Group 3: -2.5±1.4 (p=0.47). H/A Z scores values were: Group 1: -1.5±1.2; Group 2: -2.3±1.8 and Group 3: -2.1±1.1 (p=0.18). The calculated BMI Z scores were: Group 1: -1.2±1.4; Group 2: -1.7±3.9 and Group 3: -1.6±1.3 (p=0.82). 19 children presented short stature and 22 presented low weight. There were no differences between the studied groups. CONCLUSIONS: The sample presented high prevalence of malnutrition. Even considering the disease stage, there were no nutritional differences between the studied groups.
    Revista Paulista de Pediatria 06/2009; 27(2):148-153. DOI:10.1590/S0103-05822009000200005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The effects of recombinant human growth hormone on renal osteodystrophy are unknown; thus, the effects of growth hormone (GH) on bone histomorphometry were assessed in pediatric patients with ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Thirty-three patients who underwent bone biopsy between July 1994 and May 1999 were randomly assigned to therapy with or without GH. Patients were stratified by bone formation rate; all patients with high bone turnover received intraperitoneal calcitriol. Serum biochemical values were obtained monthly, and bone biopsy was repeated after 8 months. RESULTS: Median patient age was 11.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 7.6, 14.1 years); 45% of patients were male, and 52% were prepubertal. Median dialysis duration was 0.4 (IQR, 0.3, 0.8) year. Bone formation rate per bone surface increased from 15.0 (9.6, 21.8) to 154.6 (23.7, 174.3) μm(2)/μm(3) per year (P=0.05) in patients with low bone turnover treated with GH, decreased from 103.3 (57.0, 173.4) to 60.3 (20.3, 13.7) μm(2)/μm(3) per year in patients with high bone turnover receiving standard therapy (P=0.03), and was unchanged in the other two groups. Bone formation rates were higher with GH, irrespective of underlying bone histologic features (P=0.05). Parathyroid hormone did not differ between groups. GH therapy resulted in greater increases in height SD scores (estimated mean difference in change ± SD, 0.324±0.076; P<0.001), irrespective of underlying bone histologic features. CONCLUSIONS: GH therapy improves height in pediatric dialysis patients, irrespective of underlying bone histologic features. Bone formation rates are higher in GH recipients, and GH therapy alters the relationship between circulating parathyroid hormone values and bone turnover.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2013; 8(5). DOI:10.2215/CJN.00330112 · 5.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The impact of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) on acquisition of volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical dimensions is lacking. To address this issue, we obtained tibia quantitative computed tomography scans from 103 patients aged 5-21 years with CKD (26 on dialysis) at baseline and 12 months later. Gender, ethnicity, tibia length, and/or age-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular and cortical BMD, cortical area, periosteal and endosteal circumference, and muscle area based on over 700 reference subjects. Muscle area, cortical area, and periosteal and endosteal Z-scores were significantly lower at baseline compared with the reference cohort. Cortical BMD, cortical area, and periosteal Z-scores all exhibited a significant further decrease over 12 months. Higher parathyroid hormone levels were associated with significantly greater increases in trabecular BMD and decreases in cortical BMD in the younger patients (significant interaction terms for trabecular BMD and cortical BMD). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was not associated with changes in BMD Z-scores independent of parathyroid hormone. Changes in muscle and cortical area were significantly and positively associated in control subjects but not in CKD patients. Thus, children and adolescents with CKD have progressive cortical bone deficits related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and potential impairment of the functional muscle-bone unit. Interventions are needed to enhance bone accrual in childhood-onset CKD.Kidney International advance online publication, 3 October 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.347.
    Kidney International 10/2012; 83(3). DOI:10.1038/ki.2012.347 · 8.52 Impact Factor