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Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW & Kiel DP: Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 727-736

Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 04/1999; 69(4):727-36.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteoporosis and related fractures will be growing public health problems as the population ages. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors.
We investigated associations between dietary components contributing to an alkaline environment (dietary potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables) and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly subjects.
Dietary intake measures were associated with both cross-sectional (baseline) and 4-y longitudinal change in BMD among surviving members of the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire, and BMD was measured at 3 hip sites and 1 forearm site.
Greater potassium intake was significantly associated with greater BMD at all 4 sites for men and at 3 sites for women (P < 0.05). Magnesium intake was associated with greater BMD at one hip site for both men and women and in the forearm for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with BMD at 3 sites for men and 2 for women. Greater intakes of potassium and magnesium were also each associated with less decline in BMD at 2 hip sites, and greater fruit and vegetable intake was associated with less decline at 1 hip site, in men. There were no significant associations between baseline diet and subsequent bone loss in women.
These results support the hypothesis that alkaline-producing dietary components, specifically, potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables, contribute to maintenance of BMD.

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    • "Higher consumption of fruits and vegetables has been correlated with a reduction in the risk for the development of osteoporosis. (Arikan et al., 2011; Prentice et al., 2006; Macdonald et al., 2004; Macdonald et al., 2008; Palacios et al., 2006; Tucker et al., 1999; Lister et al., 2007; New, 2003; Trzeciakiewicz et al., 2009). "
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    • "Fruits and vegetables have been linked with decreased risk of fractures (WHO, 2003). Several components in these foods, such as vitamins K and C, phytoestrogens, potassium and magnesium, as well as, the promotion of an alkaline environment, have been associated with the preservation of bone health (Tucker et al., 1999; Burns et al., 2003). In our study, vegetable consumption appears to be inversely, although statistically not significant, associated with hip fracture risk (P ¼ 0.10). "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence on the role of diet during adulthood and beyond on fracture occurrence is limited. We investigated diet and hip fracture incidence in a population of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. 29, 122 volunteers (10,538 men, 18,584 women) aged 60 years and above (mean age: 64.3) from five countries were followed up for a median of 8 years and 275 incident hip fractures (222 women and 53 men) were recorded. Diet was assessed at baseline through validated dietary questionnaires. Data were analyzed through Cox proportional-hazards regression with adjustment for potential confounders. No food group or nutrient was significantly associated with hip fracture occurrence. There were suggestive inverse associations, however, with vegetable consumption (hazard ratio (HR) per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.01), fish consumption (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85-1.02) and polyunsaturated lipid intake (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.02), whereas saturated lipid intake was positively associated with hip fracture risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.99-1.29). Consumption of dairy products did not appear to influence the risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.93-1.12). In a prospective study of the elderly, diet, including consumption of dairy products, alcohol and vitamin D, did not appear to play a major role in hip fracture incidence. There is however, weak and statistically non-significant evidence that vegetable and fish consumption and intake of polyunsaturated lipids may have a beneficial, whereas saturated lipid intake a detrimental effect.
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    • "The highest factor loadings for the 'healthy' diet were seen in fruit and vegetables (0.55 and 0.6, respectively). A number of short-term population-based studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of fruit and vegetables on indices of bone health (New et al., 1997; Tucker et al., 1999; Macdonald et al., 2004; Prynne et al., 2006) .The consumption of fruit and vegetables may act on bone in one of two ways, either via some pharmacologically active compound found within them or, by the base buffering of excess dietary metabolic acids (Wachman and Bernstein, 1968). The 'healthy' diet contained white meat and cheese, which contributes to the potential renal acid load of the diet and could be hypothesised to be detrimental for bone health. "
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