The antigastrinic, antisecretory and antiulcer activities of CR 2945, (R)-1-naphthalenepropanoic acid,β-[2-[[2-(8-azaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl-carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylphenyl] amino]-2-oxoethyl], were investigated in vitro and in vivo in rats and cats. Its activities were compared with those of two gastrin/CCK(B) receptor antagonists, l-365,260 (3R(+)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-N'-(3-methylphenyl)urea and CAM-1028 (4-[[2-[[3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-[[[1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)oxy]carbonyl]amino]propyl]amino]-1-phenylethyl]amino-4-oxo-[1S-1α,2β[S'(S')4α]]-butanoate-N-methyl-d-glucamine), of the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, ranitidine, and the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in rabbit parietal cells induced by gastrin (50 nM) was blocked by CR 2945 with an IC50 value of 5.9 nM. CAM-1028 and l-365,260 showed similar activity. CR 2945 antagonized pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats (ED50=1.3 mg kg-1 i.v. and 2.7 mg kg-1 i.d.) and cats (1.6 mg kg-1 i.v.). CR 2945 was slightly less potent than the reference compounds after i.v. administration, whereas after intraduodenal (i.d.) administration, it was more potent than both ranitidine and omeprazole. In the rat, the gastrin antagonism exhibited by CR 2945 was reversible and competitive, with a pA2 value of 7.33. CR 2945 had specific antigastrin activity, as it was unable to antagonize the gastric acid secretion stimulated by histamine or carbachol in rats up to the dose of 30 mg kg-1. CR 2945 was about as efficacious as ranitidine against the indomethacin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rats. On the contrary, l-365,260 was only slightly effective. These results suggest that CR 2945 might be a promising compound for the therapy of acid-related disorders, and that its clinical use could help clarify the therapeutic potential of gastrin/CCK(B) receptor antagonists in the gut.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacological effects of a novel CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, S-0509, on gastric acid secretion in dogs remain unknown.
To evaluate the antisecretory effects of S-0509 on gastric acid secretion and to compare such effects with famotidine or atropine in dogs stimulated with various gastric stimulants.
Ten beagle dogs with a denervated Heidenhain pouch and three beagle dogs with an innervated gastric fistula were used. Gastric acid secretion was stimulated by either continuous intravenous administration of pentagastrin, carbachol or histamine, or oral administration of a peptone meal or beer.
In the Heidenhain pouch model, both intravenously administered and orally administered S-0509 significantly inhibited the gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, peptone meal and beer. Nonetheless, the drug had little or no effect on carbachol-stimulated or histamine-stimulated acid secretion. Famotidine extensively inhibited all gastric acid secretion stimulated by the above stimulants in a non-selective manner. Atropine also significantly inhibited the acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, peptone meal, beer or carbachol, but was not able to inhibit stimulation due to histamine. Oral administration of peptone meal or beer significantly increased the plasma gastrin level. Similarly to the Heidenhain pouch model, even in the gastric fistula (GF) model, S-0509 significantly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion, yet the drug had no effect on carbachol-stimulated secretion.
S-0509 is a selective CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist in dogs that inhibits gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin and gastrin-releasing substances, but does not inhibit histamine-stimulated and carbachol-stimulated acid secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients with peptic ulcer disease are currently treated with proton pump inhibitors or histamine H(2) receptor antagonists. The long-term use of these compounds has been associated with two potential problems. Firstly, proton pump inhibitors may induce enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia. Secondly, ulcers may relapse despite maintenance therapy with histamine H(2) antagonists. This has been the rationale for the development of new antisecretory agents, including antagonists against gastrin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), as well as ligands to histamine H(3) receptors. Several potent, high affinity cholecystokinin (CCK)-2 receptor antagonists have recently been identified such as L-365260, YM-022, RP-73870, S-0509, spiroglumide and itriglumide (CR-2945). Current data suggest that they all have antisecretory and anti-ulcer effects. In addition to reducing acid production, CCK-2 receptor antagonists may possibly also accelerate gastric emptying, a combination of functions which could potentially be beneficial in patients with functional dyspepsia. Receptors for bombesin and its mammalian counterpart GRP have been localised in the brain, spinal cord and enteric nerve fibres of the gut as well as on secretory cells and smooth muscle cells of the intestinal tract. Current data clearly indicate that endogenous GRP is involved in the regulation of basal and postprandial acid secretion. However, at this stage it is not clear whether GRP agonists or GRP antagonists can be developed into useful drugs. The peptide has a wide range of biological effects and it is likely that analogues of GRP or antagonists of the peptide affect not only gastric acid secretion but also induce considerable side effects. Histamine plays a central role in the stimulation of acid secretion. After their detection in the brain, H(3) receptors have been identified in a variety of tissues including perivascular nerve terminals, enteric ganglia of the ileum and lung, and ECL cells. Despite many studies, the role of H(3) receptors in the regulation of gastric acid secretion is still unclear. Controversial data have been presented, and study results largely depend on the species and experimental models. It seems unlikely that proton pump inhibitors or H(2) receptor antagonists will be replaced in the near future by new antisecretory agents. The current shortcomings of the new compounds include mainly their reduced clinical effectiveness and pharmacological limitations. However, the development of these new antisecretory compounds provides interesting tools to assess the physiological and pharmacological role of different receptors within the gastrointestinal tract. The use of CCK-2 receptor antagonists in patients with functional dyspepsia and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome should be examined in randomised, controlled trials.
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