Interferons (IFNs) affect cellular functions by altering gene expression. The eukaryotic cell cycle is governed in part by the periodic transcription of cyclin genes, whose protein products associate with and positively regulate the cyclin-dependent kinases. To understand better the growth inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we compared the expression and activity of G1 and S phase cyclins in control and IFN-gamma-treated VSMCs. IFN-gamma treatment did not inhibit the G1 cyclins but did decrease cyclin A protein, mRNA, and associated kinase activity by 85, 90, and 90%, respectively. Nuclear run-on and mRNA stability determinations indicated that this decrease was the result of transcriptional inhibition. To investigate the molecular basis of this inhibition, we examined protein-DNA interactions involving the cyclin A promoter. Electromobility shift assays showed little change with IFN-gamma treatment in the binding of nuclear proteins to isolated ATF, NF-Y, and CDE elements. In vivo genomic footprinting indicated that IFN-gamma treatment changed the occupancy of chromosomal NF-Y and CDE sites slightly and did not affect occupancy of the ATF site. In a previous study of transforming growth factor-beta1-mediated inhibition of the cyclin A promoter, we mapped the inhibitory effect to the ATF site; in the present study of IFN-gamma treatment, functional analysis by transient transfection showed that inhibition of the cyclin A promoter persisted despite mutation of the ATF, NF-Y, or CDE elements. We hypothesize that IFN-gamma inhibits cyclin A transcription by modifying co-activators or general transcription factors within the complex that drives transcription of the cyclin A gene.
"Another candidate is MBP-1, which represses c-myc expression when bound to the E2F site (Ray and Miller, 1991). IFN-γ inhibits the transcription of several genes, including those encoding perlecan, bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 and cyclin A (Tamai et al., 1995; Sharma and Iozzo, 1998; Sibinga et al., 1999). Transcriptional repression of the perlecan gene by IFN-γ requires functional Stat1 and a promoter region containing multiple GAS elements. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFNs) inhibit cell growth in a Stat1-dependent fashion that involves regulation of c-myc expression. IFN- suppresses c-myc in wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts, but not in Stat1-null cells, where IFNs induce c-myc mRNA rapidly and transiently, thus revealing a novel signaling pathway. Both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of Stat1 are required for suppression. Induced expression of c-myc is likely to contribute to the proliferation of Stat1-null cells in response to IFNs. IFNs also suppress platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced c-myc expression in wild-type but not in Stat1-null cells. A gamma-activated sequence element in the promoter is necessary but not sufficient to suppress c-myc expression in wild-type cells. In PKR-null cells, the phosphorylation of Stat1 on Ser727 and transactivation are both defective, and c-myc mRNA is induced, not suppressed, in response to IFN-. A role for Raf-1 in the Stat1-independent pathway is revealed by studies with geldanamycin, an HSP90-specific inhibitor, and by expression of a mutant of p50cdc37 that is unable to recruit HSP90 to the Raf-1 complex. Both agents abrogated the IFN--dependent induction of c-myc expression in Stat1-null cells.
The EMBO Journal 01/2000; 19(2):263-272. DOI:10.1093/emboj/19.2.263 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stat1 is a fascinating and complex protein with multiple, yet contrasting transcriptional functions. Upon activation, it drives the expression of many genes but also suppresses the transcription of others. These opposing characteristics also apply to its role in facilitating crosstalk between signal transduction pathways, as it participates in both synergistic activation and inhibition of gene expression. Stat1 is a functional transcription factor even in the absence of inducer-mediated activation, participating in the constitutive expression of some genes. This review summarizes the well studied involvement of Stat1 in IFN-dependent and growth factor-dependent signaling and then describes the roles of Stat1 in positive, negative and constitutive regulation of gene expression as well as its participation in crosstalk between signal transduction pathways. Oncogene (2000).
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