Cytokeratin expression patterns in normal and malignant urothelium: a review of the biological and diagnostic implications.
ABSTRACT The cytokeratins are the intermediate filament proteins characteristic of epithelial cells. In human cells, some 20 different cytokeratin isotypes have been identified. Epithelial cells express between two and ten cytokeratin isotypes and the consequent profile which reflects both epithelial type and differentiation status may be useful in tumour diagnosis. The transitional epithelium or urothelium of the urinary tract shows alterations in the expression and configuration of cytokeratin isotypes related to stratification and differentiation. In transitional cell carcinoma, changes in cytokeratin profile may provide information of potential diagnostic and prognostic significance. The intensification of immunolabelling with some CK8 and CK18 antibodies may underly an active role in tumour invasion and foci of CK17-positive cells may represent proliferating populations. Loss of CK13 is a marker of grade and stage and de novo expression of CK14 is indicative of squamous differentiation and an unfavourable prognosis. However, perhaps the most important recent finding is the demonstration that a normal CK20 expression pattern is predictive of tumour non-recurrence and can be used to make an objective differential diagnosis between transitional cell papilloma and carcinoma. This review will consider cytokeratin expression in urothelium and discuss the application of cytokeratin typing to the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with TCC.
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of urinary angiogenin (ANG) and cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) mRNA in comparison with voided urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer patients. A total of 97 Egyptian patients provided a single voided urine sample for ANG, CK-20 and cytology before cystoscopy. Of the 97 cases, 63 were histologically diagnosed as bladder cancer; 33 with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and 30 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), whereas the remaining 34 had benign urological disorders. A group of 46 healthy volunteers were also included in this study. Voided urine was centrifuged and the supernatant was used for estimation of ANG by EIA and confirmed by Western blotting (WB). The urine sediment was used for cytology and RNA extraction. CK-20 RNA was detected by RT-PCR. The best cutoff value for ANG was calculated by a ROC curve as 322.7 ng/mg protein. The median urinary ANG level in bladder carcinoma, benign urological disorders and healthy volunteer groups was: 802.7, 425 and 33 pg/mg protein, respectively. The positivity rate for urinary CK-20 mRNA of the control, benign and malignant groups was 0%, 2.9% and 82.3%, respectively (P = 0.000); while the rates for ANG were 11.6%, 54.8% and 75.4%, respectively (P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in positivity rates of CK-20 and ANG with respect to sex, smoking, schistosomiasis, urine cytology, tumor grade, tumor stage, hematuria or pus cells. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 71.4% and 90% for voided urine cytology, 75.4% and 70.3% for ANG, and 82.3% and 98.8% for CK-20. Combined sensitivity of voided urine cytology with ANG and CK-20 together (98.2%) was higher than either the combined sensitivity of voided urine cytology with ANG (96.5%) or with CK-20 (91.6%) or than that of the biomarker alone. We demonstrated significant positive correlation between CK-20 positivity with age (P = 0.043) and nodal involvement (P = 0.037); however, there was no significant correlation between CK-20 and ANG with the other clinicopathological parameters. Our data indicate that CK-20 and ANG in voided urine had higher sensitivities compared to voided urine cytology. However, when specificity was considered, CK-20 alone had superior sensitivity and specificity compared to ANG and voided urine cytology.Clinical Biochemistry 10/2004; 37(9):803-10. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2004.05.027 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been previously shown that S100A2 is downregulated in tumor cells. The level of immunohistochemical S100A2 expression was therefore characterized in 424 normal and tumoral (benign and malignant) tissues of various origins, but mostly epithelial (with either glandular, squamous, respiratory or urothelial differentiation). We also investigated whether S100A2 could be co-localized with cytokeratin K14, an intermediate filament protein expressed in basal proliferative keratinocytes. Our data show that S100A2 has a low level of expression in non-epithelial tissue. In epithelial tissue S100A2 expression decreases remarkably in the tumors when compared to the normal specimens, and was correlated with the level of keratin K14. This decrease in S100A2 staining from normal to cancer cases is more pronounced in glandular than in squamous epithelial tissue. In addition, the patterns of S100A2 staining also differ between glandular and squamous tissue. These data suggest distinct functional roles for S100A2 in epithelial tissue of squamous or glandular origins.Histology and histopathology 02/2002; 17(1):123-30. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the knowledge and histological classification of testicular lesions, epididymal lesions associated with cryptorchidism are not well defined and only macroscopic alterations have been reported. We have evaluated the alterations in the growth of both the epithelium and muscular wall of efferent ducts and epididymis in human patients with cryptorchidism from infancy to adulthood. In addition, by cytokeratin immunostaining we have also evaluated the stage of differentiation of each segment along the human postnatal life in these patients. A decrease is shown in the size of efferent and epididymal ducts in cryptorchid children compared with normal, age-matched controls. The height of the epithelium, muscular wall, and lumen of the cryptorchid epididymis were reduced at every age studied. This decrease in all regions was seen even in the testicular quiescent period (1 to 4 years of age). In addition, the cryptorchid epididymis grows more slowly during the transition to the pubertal period. The smaller size of the cryptorchid epididymis in pubertal and adult men compared with that of normal men is due primarily to underdevelopment of the muscular wall and a reduction in epithelial height. The pattern of growth of cryptorchid efferent ducts and ductus epididymides parallels that in normal men, except that development of the lumen and muscular layer in the cauda epididymis region are delayed. Epithelial differentiation, monitored by cytokeratin expression, is minimal in efferent ducts and throughout the epididymis of the cryptorchid male, and this is already seen in children. In conclusion, our immunohistochemical and morphometric results show a reduced development of the human cryptorchid epididymis that is already evident in childhood. They indicate that cryptorchidism is a primary congenital illness of the testis and spermatic ducts, with evident lesions from the first years of life, and suggest that surgical descent would probably not be able to completely reverse these alterations.Journal of Andrology 03/2001; 22(2):212-25. DOI:10.1002/j.1939-4640.2001.tb02174.x · 1.69 Impact Factor