Genital automatisms in complex partial seizures.
ABSTRACT To determine which brain region is responsible for the generation of sexual automatisms.
Ninety consecutive patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy (74 with temporal lobe and 16 with frontal lobe epilepsy) referred to an epilepsy monitoring unit were studied. The occurrence of the following sexual automatisms was assessed during prolonged video-EEG monitoring: 1) repeatedly grabbing or fondling the genitals and 2) pelvic or truncal thrusting or similar movements.
Five patients repeatedly fondled or grabbed their genitals during or immediately after some of their seizures. All five had temporal lobe epilepsy, as evidenced from prolonged video-EEG monitoring, high-resolution MRI, and good to excellent outcome after epilepsy surgery. Sexual automatisms did not occur with frontal lobe epilepsy.
Sexual automatisms cannot be related exclusively to frontal lobe seizures. As previously proposed, apparently sexual hypermotoric pelvic or truncal movements are common in frontal lobe seizures, but this study suggests that discrete genital automatisms, like fondling and grabbing the genitals, are more common in seizures evolving from the temporal lobe.
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ABSTRACT: The association between epilepsy and sexual disorders has long been known. However, the etiology remains uncertain, although it is likely to be multifactorial in origin involving neurological, endocrine, iatrogenic, psychiatric and psychosocial factors. Sexual disorders associated with epilepsy can be directly related to seizures (ictal), or unrelated in time to seizure occurrence (interictal). The most common sexual dysfunction is hyposexuality, even if hypersexuality and different paraphilias have been reported in males with epilepsy. Epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs can also alter sex hormone levels to promote the development of reproductive endocrine disorders. This article aims to explore the prevalence and etiology of sexual and reproductive dysfunctions in men with epilepsy, highlighting the pivotal role of antiepileptic drugs in their pathogenesis.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 06/2011; 11(6):887-95. · 2.96 Impact Factor
Article: Epilepsy and sexuality.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sexual dysfunction is frequently reported by patients with epilepsy. Despite its fundamental role in human life, there has been surprisingly little research into the neurological control of human sexual behaviour. Multiple causes may lead to sexual dysfunction. The basis for hyposexuality has been attributed to both epilepsy and antiepileptic drug (AED) use, making it difficult to distinguish between the illness-specific and pharmacological impacts on sexual functioning. Low levels of androgens are associated with sexual arousal insufficiency and sexual dysfunction. When examining sexual dysfunction in men and women with epilepsy, the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) may be helpful in evaluating sexual function. Laboratory tests for oestrogen, free and total testosterone, and serum SHBG (sexhormone binding globuline) may also be useful in evaluating sexual health. Sporadic case studies suggest that hypersexuality is a rare but dramatic outcome of unilateral temporal lobectomy. Sexual seizure manifestations are also rare clinical phenomena during or after complex partial seizures that have received attention in the recent literature.Seizure 04/2008; 17(2):127-30. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the interest for the brain correlates of male sexual arousal, few studies investigated neural mechanisms underlying psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). Although these studies showed several brain regions active in ED patients during visual erotic stimulation, the dynamics of inhibition of sexual response is still unclear. This study investigated the dynamics of brain regions involved in the psychogenic ED. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and simultaneous penile tumescence (PT) were used to study brain activity evoked in 17 outpatients with psychogenic ED and 19 healthy controls during visual erotic stimulation. Patterns of brain activation related to different phases of sexual response in the two groups were compared. Simultaneous recording of blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI responses and PT during visual erotic stimulation. During visual erotic stimuli, a larger activation was observed for the patient group in the left superior parietal lobe, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas the control group showed larger activation in the right middle insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, the left superior parietal lobe showed a larger activation in patients than controls especially during the later stage of sexual response. Our results suggest that, among regions more active in patient group, the left superior parietal lobe plays a crucial role in inhibition of sexual response. Previous studies showed that left superior parietal lobe is involved in monitoring of internal body representation. The larger activation of this region in patients during later stages of sexual response suggests a high monitoring of the internal body representation, possibly affecting the behavioral response. These findings provide insight on brain mechanisms involved in psychogenic ED.Journal of Sexual Medicine 04/2012; 9(6):1602-12. · 3.51 Impact Factor