Role of radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer of high Gleason score.
ABSTRACT The routine use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing combined with digital rectal examination has lowered tumor volume and clinical-pathological stage of men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Therefore, we may identify more men with poorly differentiated tumors of early clinical stage. In order to identify those who may benefit from radical prostatectomy, we evaluated known prognostic variables in patients with prostate cancer of high Gleason score (8-10).
Of 652 patients who underwent a radical prostatectomy as monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer between March 1991-December 1995, 84 patients with prostatectomy specimen Gleason score 8-10 tumors were identified. Clinical-pathological data were obtained from our prostate cancer database. Gleason score, PSA level, margin status, pathologic stage, and tumor volume were analyzed as general prognostic variables for disease-free survival (DFS). Follow-up ranged from 13-84 months (median, 36.2). Biochemical recurrence was defined as a postoperative PSA elevation greater than 0.4 ng/ml.
The DFS for patients with Gleason score 8-10 and pathologically organ-confined disease was 62.5%. DFS was 56.2% for patients with PSA < or =10 ng/ml, compared to 19.2% for patients with serum PSA >10 ng/ml (P = 0.009). Patients with nonspecimen-confined disease (positive margins) had a DFS rate of 26.6% vs. 55% for patients with specimen-confined disease (negative margins) (P = 0.009). On multivariable analysis, only preoperative PSA < or =10 ng/ml (P = 0.02) and surgical margin status (P = 0.04) were significant predictors of DFS.
Surgical margin status and preoperative serum PSA level are independent predictors of DFS for patients with high Gleason score prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy as monotherapy. Patients with poorly differentiated prostate cancer treated surgically at an early stage can have a favorable prognosis, especially if negative surgical margins are obtained. A preoperative serum PSA level < or =10 ng/ml carries the greatest likelihood of achieving prolonged DFS in this group of patients.
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ABSTRACT: To clarify the role of radical prostatectomy (RP) in the treatment of locally advanced and high-grade prostate cancer. Literature search of Medline publications on surgery for locally advanced and high-grade prostate cancer. In patients with locally advanced disease, the cancer-specific survival rate after RP at 5- and 10-yr follow-up was 85-100% and 57-91.6%, respectively. The overall survival rate at 5 and 10 yr was>75% and 60%, respectively. In patients with high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason score> or =8), the biochemical recurrence-free survival after RP at 5 and 10 yr of follow-up was 51% and 39%, respectively. Nomograms and modern imaging techniques are useful in predicting pathologic stage, presence of positive lymph nodes, or seminal vesicle involvement. These allow physicians to recognise those patients with locally advanced disease who are most likely to benefit from surgical treatment. Downgraded and organ- or specimen-confined high-grade tumours can have a good prognosis after surgery. The prostate-specific antigen value and the percent positive biopsy cores can be helpful in identifying men with high-grade prostate cancer most likely to benefit from RP. It is likely that surgery has a role in the treatment of locally advanced and high-grade tumours. However, it is necessary and urgent to have randomised trials assessing survival and quality of life when RP is and is not included in the multimodality treatment.European Urology 02/2008; 53(2):253-9. · 8.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine in a prospective pilot study the safety and efficacy of cryosurgical ablation for localized prostate carcinoma. A total of 87 cryosurgical procedures were performed on 76 consecutive patients between December 1994 and February 1998. All patients had histologically proved adenocarcinoma of the prostate, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) readings of less than 30 ng/mL. Clinical evaluations, PSA determinations, and patient self-reported quality-of-life questionnaires (functional assessment of cancer treatment-prostate; FACT-P) were used to determine biochemical and clinical disease-free status and complications. Patients had a mean follow-up of 50 months (minimum 36). Follow-up biopsies were performed in 73 patients, and 72 were negative for malignancy after one or more treatments. Ten patients required two treatments and 1 patient required three treatments. The 5-year overall and cancer-specific survival rate was 89% (95% confidence interval, 83% to 97%) and 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 96% to 100%), respectively. The undetectable PSA rate (less than 0.3 ng/mL) for low-risk patients (n = 13) was 60% at 5 years; for moderate-risk patients (n = 23), it was 77%, and for high-risk patients (n = 40), 48%. The corresponding percentage of patients with a PSA level less than 1.0 ng/mL at 5 years was 75%, 89%, and 76%. Sloughing occurred in 3 patients (3.9%), incontinence in 1 (1.3%), and testicular abscess in 1 (1.3%). At 3 years, 18 (47%) of 38 patients capable of unassisted intercourse at the time of cryosurgery had resumed sexual intercourse, 5 spontaneously and 13 with sildenafil or prostaglandin. The results of this prospective evaluation show cryosurgery to be both a safe and an effective option in the treatment of localized prostate cancer.Urology 11/2002; 60(4):645-9. · 2.43 Impact Factor
Article: Prognostic significance of pathologic features in localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy: implications for staging systems and predictive models.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although predicting outcome for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PC) has improved, the staging system and nomograms used to do this are based on results from the North American health system. To be internationally applicable, these models require testing in cohorts from a variety of different health systems based on the predominant PC case identification methods used. We studied 732 men with localized PC treated with radical prostatectomy and no preoperative therapy between 1986 and 1999 at one Australian institution to determine the effect of clinicopathologic features on disease-free survival. Preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, Gleason score, pathologic stage, and year of surgery were independent predictors of outcome. Although margin status demonstrated only a trend toward significance in multivariate modeling overall, it proved to be independent in subgroups based on later year of surgery (1986 to 1994 v 1995 to 1998), preoperative PSA of less than 10 ng/mL, and Gleason score > or = 7. Adjuvant radiation therapy improved disease-free survival rates in patients with multiple surgical margin involvement. This work confirms the prognostic significance of pathologic stage, Gleason score, and preoperative serum PSA. In the context of a contemporaneous screening effect in Australia, these findings may have implications for methods that predict outcome following surgery as screening becomes more prevalent in a population. The independent prognostic effect of margin status may alter with an increase in the proportion of screening-identified PCs. Staging systems and nomograms that predict outcome following surgery require validation in cohorts with different health practices before being universally applied.Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2001; 19(16):3692-705. · 18.37 Impact Factor