Increased membrane-associated protein kinase C activity and translocation in blood platelets from bipolar affective disorder patients.
ABSTRACT recent investigations have suggested that the phosphoinositide (PI) signal transduction system may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorders. Earlier studies in our laboratory have implicated altered PKC-mediated phosphorylation in bipolar affective disorder and in the clinical action of lithium. In the present study, we compared PKC activity and its translocation in platelets from subjects with bipolar affective disorder and three other groups.
subjects included 44 with bipolar disorder (acute manic episode), 25 with acute major depression, 23 with schizophrenia in acute exacerbation and 43 controls free of personal or family history of an Axis I disorder. Blood platelet membrane and cytosol PKC activity was measured before and after in vitro stimulation with serotonin (5-HT), thrombin and the direct PKC activator, PMA. In addition, we examined 5-HT-, thrombin- and PMA-elicited translocations of PKC isozymes from cytosol to the membrane in platelets of control subjects.
in the basal state, manic subjects demonstrated higher membrane PKC activity than depressive and control subjects. The ratio of membrane to cytosol PKC activity was significantly higher in manic (1.10), as compared to control (0.84), depressed (0.93) or schizophrenic (0.93) subjects. Stimulation of platelets with 5-HT in vitro, resulted in greater membrane to cytosol ratio in the manic subjects compared to the three other groups. The responsiveness of platelets to PMA and thrombin was greater for manic subjects than for depressed and schizophrenic subjects, but not greater than the controls. In this measure both the schizophrenic and depressive groups were less active than controls. The results also demonstrate that platelets contain alpha-, beta-, delta- and zeta-PKC isozymes. While alpha- and beta-PKC isoforms were translocated from cytosol to membrane in response to serotonin, PMA and thrombin, serotonin also elicited the redistribution of delta-PKC and thrombin also activated zeta-PKC.
the results demonstrate that a heightened PKC-mediated signal transduction is associated with acute mania and suggest a decreased transduction in patients with unipolar depression or schizophrenia.
SourceAvailable from: Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
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ABSTRACT: With the advent of DSM 5 criticism has generally centered on a lack of biological validity of the diagnostic criteria. Part of the problem in describing a nosology of psychosis is the tacit assumption of multiple genetic causes each with an incremental loading on the clinical picture that fails to differentiate a clear underlying pathophysiology of high impact. The aim of this paper is to consolidate a primary theory of deficient muscarinic signaling underlying key clinical features of schizophrenia and its regulation by several important genetic associations including neuregulin, DISC and dysbindin. Secondary reductions in markers for GABAergic function and changes in the levels of interneuron calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin can be attributed to dysfunctional muscarinic transduction. A parallel association exists for cytokine production. The convergent pathway hypothesis is likewise used to model dopaminergic and glutamatergic theories of schizophrenia. The negative symptom dimension is correlated with dysfunction of Akt and ERK transduction, a major point of convergence. The present paradigm predicts the importance of a recent finding of a deletion in a copy number variant of PLCB1 and its potential use if replicated, as one of the first testable biological markers differentiating schizophrenia from bipolar disorder and further subtyping of schizophrenia into deficit and non-deficit. Potential limitations of PLCB1 as a prospective marker are also discussed.Frontiers in Pharmacology 12/2014; 5:277. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00277