P2X7/P2Z purinoreceptor-mediated activation of transcription factor NFAT in microglial cells.
ABSTRACT ATP is released from neurons and other cell types during several physiological and stress conditions under which it exerts various biological effects upon binding to purinoreceptors. A rather peculiar purinoreceptor called P2X7/P2Z is expressed on microglial and other myeloic cells. Although increasing evidence implicates an important role for P2Z in inflammatory processes, little information exists about underlying signaling pathways. Here, we report that in N9 microglial cells, extracellular ATP potently activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a central transcription factor involved in cytokine gene expression. ATP activated NFAT rapidly (within 1 min), whereas activation of nuclear factor kappaB was much delayed, with strikingly distinct kinetics. During ATP stimulation, both NFAT-1 and NFAT-2 were activated by a calcineurin-dependent pathway that required the influx of extracellular calcium ions. Based on the pharmacological profile, NFAT activation was specifically mediated by P2Z and not by other purinoreceptors. N9 cells that lacked P2Z but still expressed P2Y purinoreceptors failed to respond to NFAT activation. We conclude that P2Z-mediated NFAT activation may represent a novel mechanism by which extracellular ATP can modulate early inflammatory gene expression within the nervous and immune system.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and increased extracellular nucleotides are frequently coincident in the brainstem. Extracellular nucleotides are potent modulators of microglial inflammatory gene expression via P2X purinergic receptor activation. Although hypoxia is also known to modulate inflammatory gene expression, little is known about how hypoxia or P2X receptor activation alone affect inflammatory molecule production in brainstem microglia, nor how hypoxia and P2X receptor signaling interact when they occur together. In this study, we investigated the ability of a brief episode of hypoxia (2hrs) in the presence and absence of the non-selective P2X receptor agonist 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP) to promote inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia in adult rats. We evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in immunomagnetically-isolated brainstem microglia. Whereas iNOS and IL-6 gene expression increased with hypoxia and BzATP alone, TNFα expression was unaffected. Surprisingly, BzATP-induced inflammatory effects are lost after hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia impairs pro-inflammatory P2X receptor signaling. We also evaluated the expression of key P2X receptors activated by BzATP, namely P2X1, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors. Whereas hypoxia did not alter their expression, BzATP upregulated P2X4 and P2X7 mRNAs; these effects were ablated in hypoxia. Although both P2X4 and P2X7 receptor expression correlated with increased microglial iNOS and IL-6 levels in microglia from normoxic rats, in hypoxia, P2X7 only correlated with IL-6, and P2X4 correlated only with iNOS. In addition, correlations between P2X7 and P2X4 were lost following hypoxia, suggesting that P2X4 and P2X7 receptor signaling differs in normoxia and hypoxia. Together, these data suggest that hypoxia suppresses P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression, indicating a potentially immunosuppressive role of extracellular nucleotides in brainstem microglia following exposure to hypoxia.Hypoxia. 08/2013; 2013(1).
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ABSTRACT: Microglial cells, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system (CNS), exhibit a resting phenotype under healthy conditions. In response to injury, however, they transform into an activated state, which is a hallmark feature of many CNS diseases. Factors or agents released from the neurons, blood vessels, and/or astrocytes could activate these cells, leading to their functional and structural modifications. Microglial cells are well equipped to sense environmental changes within the brain under both physiological and pathological conditions. Entry of calcium ions (Ca(2+) ) plays a critical role in the process of microglial transformation; several channels and receptors have been identified on the surface of microglial cells. These include store-operated channel, Orai1, and its sensor protein, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), in microglial cells, and their functions are modulated under pathological stimulations. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and voltage- and ligand-gated channels (ionotropic and metabotropic receptors) are also responsible for Ca(2+) influx into the microglial cells. An elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration subsequently regulates microglial cell functions by activating a diverse array of Ca(2+) -sensitive signaling cascades. Perturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis contributes to the progression of a number of CNS disorders. Thus, regulation of Ca(2+) entry into microglial cells could be a pharmacological target for several CNS-related pathological conditions. This Review addresses the recent insights into microglial cell Ca(2+) influx mechanisms, their roles in the regulation of functions, and alterations of Ca(2+) entry in specific CNS disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Neuroscience Research 01/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) is the master regulator of osteoblastogenesis with an ability to promote differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblastic lineage. We have previously shown constitutive and functional expression of Runx2 by astroglial cells. In this study, we investigated the possible expression of Runx2 by both murine microglia and microglial cell line BV-2 cells. Runx2 expression was seen in cultured microglia and BV-2 cells, while sustained exposure to 1 mM ATP led to a significant but transient increase in mRNA and corresponding protein expression of Runx2 within 24 h. The increase in Runx2 expression was invariably prevented by several chemicals with antagonistic properties for P2X7 purinergic receptor, calmodulin and calcineurin in BV-2 cells, with a P2X7 receptor agonist more than quadrupling Runx2 expression. A significant increase in Runx2 expression was seen in osteoclastic cells, but not in osteoblastic or chondrocytic cells, when exposed to a high concentration of ATP. In BV2-cells with control siRNA, a significant decrease was found in the number of cells with at least one process within 3 h after the exposure to 1 mM ATP, followed by an increase up to 24 h. However, Runx2 siRNA significantly deteriorated the property to induce delayed process extension during 6 to 24 h after exposure to ATP along with drastically decreased Runx2 protein levels. These results suggest that Runx2 is constitutively and functionally expressed by microglial cells with responsiveness to ATP for upregulation in the murine brain.Neurochemistry International 04/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor