ATP is released from neurons and other cell types during several physiological and stress conditions under which it exerts various biological effects upon binding to purinoreceptors. A rather peculiar purinoreceptor called P2X7/P2Z is expressed on microglial and other myeloic cells. Although increasing evidence implicates an important role for P2Z in inflammatory processes, little information exists about underlying signaling pathways. Here, we report that in N9 microglial cells, extracellular ATP potently activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a central transcription factor involved in cytokine gene expression. ATP activated NFAT rapidly (within 1 min), whereas activation of nuclear factor kappaB was much delayed, with strikingly distinct kinetics. During ATP stimulation, both NFAT-1 and NFAT-2 were activated by a calcineurin-dependent pathway that required the influx of extracellular calcium ions. Based on the pharmacological profile, NFAT activation was specifically mediated by P2Z and not by other purinoreceptors. N9 cells that lacked P2Z but still expressed P2Y purinoreceptors failed to respond to NFAT activation. We conclude that P2Z-mediated NFAT activation may represent a novel mechanism by which extracellular ATP can modulate early inflammatory gene expression within the nervous and immune system.
"Previous studies have also shown P2RX7 activation results in release of interferon-1β, accumulation of transcription factors that mediate apoptosis, specifically NFAT and NFKβ , , and macrophage cell death . P2RX7 activation has also been associated with increased caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ecotropic virus integration site 1 (EVI1) transcription factor is associated with human myeloid malignancy of poor prognosis and is overexpressed in 8-10% of adult AML and strikingly up to 27% of pediatric MLL-rearranged leukemias. For the first time, we report comprehensive genomewide EVI1 binding and whole transcriptome gene deregulation in leukemic cells using a combination of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq expression profiling. We found disruption of terminal myeloid differentiation and cell cycle regulation to be prominent in EVI-induced leukemogenesis. Specifically, we identified EVI1 directly binds to and downregulates the master myeloid differentiation gene Cebpe and several of its downstream gene targets critical for terminal myeloid differentiation. We also found EVI1 binds to and downregulates Serpinb2 as well as numerous genes involved in the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. Finally, we identified decreased expression of several ATP-dependent P2X purinoreceptors genes involved in apoptosis mechanisms. These findings provide a foundation for future study of potential therapeutic gene targets for EVI1-induced leukemia.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e67134. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067134 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"NFAT is one of the main pathways activated through Ca2+ and calcineurin following P2X7 stimulation [29, 85–88]. We have shown that NFATc1 activation is central for P2X7 trophic activity as treatment with the NFATc1 inhibitors cyclosporine and VIVIT obliterates P2X7-dependent cell growth . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modulation of tumor microenvironment by different mediators is central in determining neoplastic formation and progression. Among these molecules extracellular ATP is emerging as a good candidate in promoting cell growth, neovascularization, tumor-host interactions, and metastatization. This paper summarizes recent findings on expression and function of P2X7 receptor for extracellular ATP in primary and metastatic bone cancers. Search of mRNA expression microchip databases and literature analysis demonstrate a high expression of P2X7 in primary bone tumors as well as in other malignancies such as multiple myeloma, neuroblastoma, breast, and prostate cancer. Evidence that P2X7 triggers NFATc1, PI3K/Akt, ROCK, and VEGF pathways in osteoblasts promoting either primary tumor development or osteoblastic lesions is also reported. Moreover, P2X7 receptor is involved in osteoclast differentiation, RANKL expression, matrix metalloproteases and cathepsin secretion thus promoting bone resorption and osteolytic lesions. Taken together these data point to a pivotal role for the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer biology.
Journal of Osteoporosis 08/2012; 637863(10). DOI:10.1155/2012/637863
"In addition, sustained activation of P2X 7 Rs may generate non-selective pores that are permeable to small molecules up to 900 Da in size (Virginio et al., 1999; Di Virgilio et al., 2001). Although expression of the P2X 7 R is primarily associated with immune and hematopoietic cells (Surprenant et al., 1996; Di Virgilio et al., 2001), its mRNA or protein has been identified in all brain cell types in the CNS (Ferrari et al., 1999; Choi et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2008). Importantly, the P2X 7 R is highly expressed on microglia and activation of these receptors is correlated with release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β (Ferrari et al., 1997; Lister et al., 2007) and TNFα (Hide et al., 2000; Lister et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation and proliferation of glial cells and their progenitors is a key process of neuroinflammation associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. Under neuropathological conditions where glial cell activation and proliferation is evident, controlling the population of glia might be of therapeutic importance. The proliferative action of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) on microglia has been reported, but the molecular mechanism of TNFα regulation of glial cell proliferation is largely unknown. Using a model of organotypic hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC) slice culture, we investigated the role of ATP-P2X(7) receptor signaling in glial proliferation by TNFα. Populations of proliferating cells in HEC culture were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Treatment with TNFα induced strong expression of P2X(7) receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity in BrdU+ cells while markedly increasing proliferation of BrdU+ cells. In addition, TNFα increased aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression, an ion channel involved in glial proliferation. The proliferative action of TNFα was attenuated by blocking the P2X(7) receptors with the specific antagonists oxATP, BBG, and KN62, or by lowering extracellular ATP with ATP hydrolysis apyrase. Basal proliferation of BrdU+ cells was also sensitive to blockade of ATP-P2X(7) signaling. Furthermore, TNFα activation of P2X(7) receptors appear to regulate AQP4 expression through protein kinase C cascade and down regulation of AQP4 expression can reduce TNFα-stimulated BrdU+ cell proliferation. Taken together, these novel findings demonstrate the importance of ATP-P2X(7) signaling in controlling proliferation of glial progenitors under the pathological conditions associated with increased TNFα.
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